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cardinal from the haven of St. John, in Newfoundland. The fisheries of that region were already frequented not by the English only, but also by Normans, Biscayans, and Bretons. The repudiation of Catharine of Aragon by Henry VIII. sundered his political connection with Spain, which already began to fear English rivalry in the New World. He was vigorous in his attempts to Chap. III.} suppress piracy; and the navigation of his subjects flourished under his protection. The banner of St. George was often displayed in the harbors of Northern Africa and in the Levant; and now that commerce, emancipated from the limits of the inner seas, went boldly forth upon the oceans, the position of England gave her a pledge of superiority. An account exists of an expedition to the northwest in 1536, conducted by Hore, of London, and assisted by the good countenance of Henry VIII. But the two ships, the Trinity and the Minion, were worn out by a troublesome voyage of more than two months, b
rtyseven leagues above the mouth of the river, he found the village of Piscataqua, an Indian settlement nearly opposite Mount Vernon. The chieftain of the tribe would neither bid him go nor stay; he might use his own discretion. It did not seem safe for the English to plant the first settlement so high up the river; Calvert descended the stream, examining, in his barge, the creeks and estuaries nearer the Chesapeake; he entered the river which is now called St. Mary's, and which he named St. George's; and, about four leagues from its junction with the Potomac, he anchored at the Indian town of Yoacomoco. The native inhabitants, having suffered from the superior power of the Susquehannahs, who occupied the district between the bays, had already resolved to remove into places of more security in the interior; and many of them had begun to migrate before the English arrived. To Calvert, the spot seemed convenient for a plantation; it was easy by presents of cloth and axes, of hoes an
with a government framed as if for a permanent colony. Rude cabins, a storehouse, and some slight fortifications, were rapidly prepared, and the ships sailed for England, leaving forty-five Dec. 5. emigrants in the plantation, which was named St. George. But the winter was intensely cold; the natives, at first friendly, became restless; the storehouse caught fire, and part of the provisions was consumed; the emigrants grew weary of their solitude; they lost Popham, their president, the only o—an error. of the company that died there; the ships which revisited the settlement with supplies, brought news of 1608. the death of the chief justice, the most vigorous friend of the settlement in England; and Gilbert, the sole in command at St. George, had, by the decease of his brother, become heir to an estate which invited his presence. So the plantation was abandoned; and the colonists, returning to England, did coyne many excuses, and sought to conceal their own deficiency of spirit by