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war; but if Mexico should attack our troops, the Executive could announce: Whereas war exists by the acts of, etc., and prosecute the contest with vigour. Once initiated, there were few public men who would have the courage to oppose it. Incensed at the Americans fortifying themselves on the Rio Grande, opposite Matamoras, the Mexicans at last fired the necessary shot, and the war was commenced. This was in March 1846. In September 1847 the American army entered the city of Mexico. Vera Cruz, Puebla, and other principal cities of the country, were already in their possession. In February 1848 was signed the treaty which gave to the United States Texas with the Rio Grande for its boundary, and the whole territory then included in New Mexico and Upper California. For New Mexico and California, however, the Americans paid a sum of fifteen millions of dollars. Grant marks with sagacity and justness the causes and effects of the Mexican war. As the North grew in numbers and po