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for to the latter they left the home country—sufficient for their needs—and for the former they provided more land than they had owned since they embraced in their conquests all the territory which we Hellenes now possess.For the traditional “Ionic migration,” led by Athens, in the course of which settlements were made in Samos and Chios and in the islands of the Cyclades, in Asia Minor, and on the shores of the Black Sea, see Isoc. 12.43-44, 166, 190; Thuc. 1.2.6; Grote, History of Greece （new edition）, ii. pp. 21 ff. And so they smoothed the way for those also who in a later time resolved to send out colonists and imitate our city; for these did not have to undergo the perils of war in acquiring territory, but could go into the country marked out by us and se
Reflecting on these things, we may well be indignant at the present state of affairs, and yearn for our lost supremacy: and we may well blame the Lacedaemonians because, although in the beginning they entered upon the warThe Peloponnesian War. with the avowed intentionSee words of Brasidas in Thuc. 4.85. of freeing the Hellenes, in the end they delivered so many of them into bondage, and because they induced the Ionians to revolt from Athens, the mother city from which the Ionians emigrated and by whose influence they were often preserved from destruction, and then betrayed themBy the Treaty of Antalcidas, negotiated by Sparta, the Ionian cities of Asia Minor and the neighboring islands were given over to Persia （Xen. Hell. 5.1.31）. to the barbarians—those barbarians in despite of whom they possess their lands and against whom they have never ceased to
And yet it is the duty of men who are proud because of natural gifts and not merely because of fortune to undertake such deeds much rather than to levy tributeFor tribute levied by Sparta see Xen. Hell. 6.2.16. on the islanders,The Cyclades, hilly and comparatively barren. who are deserving of their pity, seeing that because of the scarcity of land they are compelled to till mountains, while the people of the mainland,The “mainlanders”—Persian subjects in Asia Minor. because of the abundance of their territory, allow most of it to lie waste, and have, nevertheless, from that part of it which they do harvest, grown immensely
For example, they maintained the army under Agesilaus at their own expense for eight months,See Xen. Hell. 3.4.26; Grote, Hist. ix. p. 92. but they deprived the soldiers who were fighting in the Persian cause of their pay for double that length of time; they distributed an hundred talents among the captors of Cisthene,Cisthene was probably a town in Asia Minor captured by Agesilaus in the campaign. but treated more outrageously than their prisoners of war the troops who supported them in the campaign against Cyprus.
Hecatomnus, the viceroy of Caria, has in reality been disaffected for a long time now,See Dio. Sic. 15.2. and will openly declare himself whenever we wish. From Cnidus to SinopeFrom Cnidus in S.W. Asia Minor to Sinope on the Black Sea; a line drawn from Cnidus to Sinope cuts off Asia Minor from Asia. The expression “from Cnidus to Sinope” was a catch phrase. the coast of Asia is settled by Hellenes, and these we need not to persuade to go to war—all we have to do is not to restrain them. With such bases at our command for the operation of our forces, and with so widespread a war threatening Asia on every side, why, then, need we examine too closely what the outcome will be? For since the barbarians are unequal to small divisions of the Hellenes, it is not hard to foresee what would be their plight if they should be forced into a war against our united fo
Therefore we must be quick and not waste time, in order that we may not repeat the experience of our fathers.In the Persian Wars. For they, because they took the field later than the barbarians and had to abandon some of their allies,The Ionians in Asia Minor. See Hdt. 5.103. were compelled to encounter great numbers with a small force; whereas, if they had crossed over to the continent in time to be first on the ground, having with them the whole strength of Hellas, they could have subdued each of the nations there in turn.
Now since Jason by use of words alone advanced himself so far, what opinion must we expect the world will have of you if you actually do this thing; above all, if you undertake to conquer the whole empire of the King, or, at any rate, to wrest from it a vast extent of territory and sever from it—to use a current phrase—“Asia from Cilicia to Sinope”A catch phrase for the territory of Asia Minor. Cf. “Asia from Cnidus to Sinope” in Isoc. 4.162.; and if, furthermore, you undertake to establish cities in this region, and to settle in permanent abodes those who now, for lack of the daily necessities of life, are wandering from place to place and committing outrages upon whomsoever they encounter?See Isoc. Letter 9.9. Cf. 96; Isoc. 4.168;
And yet is it not shameful that in those days single men among us were strong enough to protect the cities of others, but now all of us together are not able, nor do we attempt, to save our own city? Is it not shameful that, when we fought for others, we filled Europe and Asia with trophies, but now, when our own country is so openly outraged, we cannot show that we have fought in her behalf a single battle worthy of note?That is, since the battle of Leuctra. In addition to others mentioned above, Agesilaus, father of Archidamus, had won many victories in Asia Minor （396-394 B.C.
For I declare that we must send our parents and our wives and children and the mass of the people away from Sparta, some to Sicily, some to Cyrene, others to the mainland of Asia,Greek emigration from the home country was commonly towards the far west （Sicily）, the east （coast of Asia Minor）, or the south （Cyrene）. Moreover, Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse and the “dynasts” in Asia were friendly to the Spartans （see § 63）, and Cyrene was a Spartan settlement （see Isoc. 5.5）. where the inhabitants will all gladly welcome them with gifts of ample lands and of the other means of livelihood as well, partly in gratitude for favors which they have received and partly in expectation of the return of favors
However, they were not satisfied with perpetrating these crimes, but about the same time were ravaging the Asiatic coast,Greek settlements in Asia Minor. See Isoc. 4.144. committing outrages against the islands,For example, Samos （Xen. Hell. 2.3.6）, by expelling the democratic faction and setting up “decarchis” there. subverting the free governments in Italy and Sicily, setting up despotisms in their stead,Sparta supported Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse in extending his power over Greek cities in Sicily and Italy. See Diodorus xiv. 10 and cf. Isoc. 4.126, which should be read in this connection. overrunning the Peloponnesus and filling it with seditions and wars. For, tell me, against which of the cities of Hellas did they fail to take the field? Which of them did they fail to