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es most ardently for a lasting connection with Great Britain on terms of just and equal liberty; less than which generous minds will not offer, nor brave and free ones receive. The desire for harmony was so intense, that Richard Penn, a proprietary of Pennsylvania and recently its governor, a most loyal Englishman, bound by the strongest motives of affection and interest to avert American independence, was selected to bear the second petition to the throne. He assumed the trust with alacrity, and on the twelfth of July embarked on his mission. The hope of success grew out of the readiness of the Americans, on the condition of exemption from parliamentary taxation, to bear the restraints on their trade; or, as an alternative, to purchase a freedom of trade like that of Scotland, by taxing themselves towards the payment of the national debt. From the complacency engendered by delusive confidence, congress was recalled to the necessities of the moment by a letter from Washington.
lacid rest under liberty. Forty thousand pounds were assessed on polls and estates, and authority was given to issue one hundred thousand more in bills of public credit, varying in amount from forty shillings to one. Congress and committees rule every province, said the British commander in chief. He looked about for colonial sympathy and contributions of Chap. XLII.} 1775. July. men; but none wished to share his confinement. He sent officers to New York to board emigrant ships from Scotland, in the hope to enlist a few Highlanders. Growing more and more uneasy, on the twenty fourth of July, he wrote home that Boston was the most disadvantageous place for all operations, and he wished himself safely at New York. To repair the Boston lighthouse carpenters were sent with a guard of thirty marines. On the evening of the thirtieth, Major Tupper attacked them with a party from Squantum and Dorchester, killed the lieutenant and one man, and captured all the rest of the party, fi
Pennsylvania. After the termination of the seven years war, very few of the Highland regiment returned home; soldiers and officers choosing rather to accept grants of land in America for settlement. Many also of the inhabitants of North Western Scotland, especially of the clans of Macdonald and Macleod, listened to overtures from those who had obtained concessions of vast domains, and migrated to Middle Carolina; tearing themselves, with bitterest grief, from kindred whose sorrow at Chap. of the Chesapeake were known to Englishmen, the movement was assisted by the writings of young James Iredell, from England; by the letters and counsels of Joseph Hewes; and by the calm wisdom of Samuel Johnston of Edenton, a native of Dundee in Scotland, a man revered for his integrity, thoroughly opposed to disorder and to revolution, if revolution could be avoided without yielding to oppression. The last provincial congress had invested him contingently with power to call a new one; on the t
, we are past the hour of lenitives and half exertions. On the other hand, John Millar, the professor of law in the university of Glasgow, taught the youth of Scotland who frequented his lectures, that the republican form of government is by far the best, either for a very small or a very extensive country. I cannot but agreer; the affair is of no consequence or of little consequence to us. But one greater than Robertson and wiser than Hume gave the best expression to the mind of Scotland. Adam Smith, the peer and the teacher of statesmen, enrolled among the servants of humanity and benefactors of our race, one who had closely studied France as wthe clearness of a man of the world with profound wisdom and the sincere search for truth, applied to the crisis those principles of freedom and right which made Scotland, under every disadvantage of an oppressive form of feudalism and a deceitful system of representation, an efficient instrument in promoting the liberties of mank
gainst the colonies must have been of short duration. His army was largely recruited from American loyalists; from emigrants driven to America by want, and too recently arrived to be imbued with its principles; from Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland; and from Germany. Treaties were also made for subsidiary troops. When Sir Joseph Yorke, the British ambassador at the Hague, proposed the transfer of a brigade from the service of the Netherlands to that of his sovereign, the young stadthol the garrisons were withdrawn from the cautionary Chap. LVII.} towns except an English and a Scottish brigade, which passed into the service of the confederacy. William the Third recalled the former; and in 1749 the privilege of recruiting in Scotland was withdrawn from the latter, of which the rank and file, now consisting of more than twenty one hundred men, were of all nations, though its officers were still Scotchmen or their descendants. In favor of the loan of the troops, it was urged,
aryland were therefore constituted one military department, the four, south of the Potomac, another; and on the first of March, six new generals of brigade were appointed. In the selection for Virginia there was difficulty: Patrick Henry had been the first colonel in her army; but the committee of safety did not favor his military ambition, and the prevailing opinion recalled him to civil life; in the judgment of Washington, Mercer would have supplied the place well; but he was a native of Scotland; so the choice fell upon Andrew Lewis, whose courage Washington did not question, but who still suffered from the odium thrown upon his conduct at Kanawha, where he had lingered in his camp, while the officers and men, whom he sent forth, with fearless gallantry Chap. LX.} 1776. Mar. and a terrible loss of life, shed over Virginia a lustre that reached to Tennessee and Kentucky. Congress soon repented of its election; and in less than a year forced Lewis to resign, by promoting an office