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y to the law of God and the law of the country; Ibid. II. 379, 380. the guilty men were committed for the offence; Colony Records, III. 45. and, after advice with the elders, the representatives of the people, bearing witness against the 1646. heinous crime of man-stealing, ordered the negroes to be restored, at the public charge, to their native country, with a letter expressing the indignation of the general court at their wrongs. Colony Laws, c. XII When George Fox visited Barbadoes in 1671, he 1671. enjoined it upon the planters, that they should deal mildly and gently with their negroes; and that, after certain years of servitude, they should make them free. The idea of George Fox had been anticipated by the fellow-citizens of Gorton and Roger Williams. Nearly 1652. May 18. twenty years had then elapsed, since the representatives of Providence and Warwick, perceiving the disposition of people in the colony to buy negroes, and hold them as slaves forever, had ena
igorous energy and fearless enthusiasm of republicanism, triumphed over all its enemies in Europe, it turned its attention to the Oct. 3. colonies; and a memorable ordinance Hazard, i. 637, 638. Parliamentary History, III. 1357. The commentary of Chalmers, p. 123, is that of a partisan lawyer. at once empowered the council of state to reduce the rebellious colonies to obedience, and, at the same time, established it as a law, that foreign ships should not trade at any of the ports in Barbadoes, Antigua, Bermudas, and Virginia. Maryland, which was not expressly included in the ordinance, had taken care to acknowledge the new order of things; Langford's Refutation, 6, 7. and Massachusetts, alike unwilling to encounter the hostility of parliament, and jealous of the rights of independent 1651 May 7. legislation, by its own enactment, prohibited all intercourse with Virginia, till the supremacy of the commonwealth should be established; although the order, when it was found to
ltimore, who, for some unknown reason, abandoned his purpose of conducting the emigrants in person, appointed his brother to act as his lieutenant; and, on Friday, the Nov 22 twenty-second of November, with a small but favoring gale, Leonard Calvert, and about two hundred people, most of them Roman Catholic gentlemen and their ser- Chap. VII.} vants, in the Ark and the Dove, a ship of large burden, and a pinnace, set sail for the northern bank of the Potomac. Having staid by the way in Barbadoes and St. Christopher, it was not till February of the follow- 1634. Feb. 24. ing year, that they arrived at Point Comfort, in Virginia; where, in obedience to the express letters of King Charles, they were welcomed by Harvey with courtesy and humanity. Clayborne also appeared, but it was as a prophet of ill omen, to terrify the company by predicting the fixed hostility of the natives. Leaving Point Comfort, Calvert sailed into the Po- Mar. tomac; Winthrop, i. 134. and with the pinn
other to be found in the kingdom. In New England he lived with great content, where, from the time of his arrival, shipbuilding was carried on with surpassing skill, so that vessels were soon constructed of four hundred tons. So long as the ports were filled with new comers, the domestic consumption had required nearly all the produce of the colony. But now, supplies from England failing much, men began to look about them, and fell to a manufacture of cotton whereof they had store from Barbadoes Chap. X.} In view of the exigency, the general court made Order for the manufacture of woollen and linen cloth. The Long Parliament, which met in 1641 contamied among its members many sincere favorers of the Puritan plantations. But the English in America with wise circumspection feared to endanger their legislative independence. Upon the great liberty which the king had left the parliament in England, says Winthrop, some of our friends there wrote to us advice to solicit for us in t