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y me to President Lincoln, dated July 6th, stating explicitly that, painful as will be the necessity, this Government will deal out to the prisoners held by it the same treatment and the same fate as shall be experienced by those captured on the Savannah; and, if driven to the terrible necessity of retaliation by your execution of any of the officers or crew of the Savannah, that retaliation will be extended so far as shall be requisite to secure the abandonment of a practice unknown to the warSavannah, that retaliation will be extended so far as shall be requisite to secure the abandonment of a practice unknown to the warfare of civilized man, and so barbarous as to disgrace the nation which shall be guilty of inaugurating it. A reply was promised to this letter, but none came. Still later in the year the privateer Jefferson Davis was captured, the captain and crew brought into Philadelphia, and the captain tried and found guilty of piracy and threatened with death. Immediately I instructed General Winder, at Richmond, to select one prisoner of the highest rank, to be confined in a cell appropriated to convic
xtremity of Beaufort Island, followed the capture of Port Royal. This exposed Savannah, only about twentyfive miles distant, to an attack from that direction. At th be erected opposite Hilton Head, and on the Broad and Saltehatchie, to cover Savannah. These were the points requiring immediate attention. He superintended in peerals advanced toward the railroad or turned in the direction of Charleston or Savannah, they were arrested by our batteries. The people, seeing the Federals repulsehis extensive line were Georgetown, Charleston, Pocotaligo, Coosawhatchee, and Savannah. Coosawhatchee, being central, could communicate with either Charleston or SaSavannah in two or three hours by railroad, and in case of an attack they could support each other. The positions between Coosawhatchee and Savannah, and those betweenSavannah, and those between the former and Charleston, could be reenforced from the positions contiguous to them; there was thus a defensive relation throughout the entire line, extending from
astwise and harbor defense. General Lee, always bold in his views and unusually sagacious in penetrating the designs of the enemy, insisted that the Peninsula offered great advantages to a smaller force in resisting a numerically superior assailant, and, in the comprehensive view which he usually took of the necessities of other places than the one where he chanced to be, objected to withdrawing the troops from South Carolina and Georgia, as involving the probable capture of Charleston and Savannah. By recent service in that section he was well informed as to the condition of those important ports. General G. W. Smith, as well as I remember, was in full accord with General Johnston, and General Longstreet partially so. After hearing fully the views of the several officers named, I decided to resist the enemy on the Peninsula, and, with the aid of the navy, to hold Norfolk and keep the command of the James River as long as possible. Arrangements were made, with such force as our
ed the Virginia burned harbor defenses at Wilmington harbor defenses at Charleston Fights in the harbor defenses of Savannah Mobile harbor and capture of its defenses sub-terra shells placed in James River; used in Charleston harbor; in Roanok ironclads frustrated their efforts to relieve the city of Charleston from continued blockade. The harbor defenses of Savannah were entrusted to Commodore Tatnall, who defended the approach to the city with a small steamer of one gun, an inefficieof the Southern seaports fell into our possession with comparative facility; and the difficulty of capturing Charleston, Savannah, Wilmington, and Mobile was in a measure owing to the fact that the approaches to these places were filled with various found their greatest security; and, notwithstanding all the efforts of Du Pont and Dahlgren, Charleston, Wilmington, and Savannah remained closed to our forces until near the close of the war. In 1862, while General McClellan was in command of th
tion of his advance General Wheeler's opposition Sherman reaches Savannah General Hardee's command the defenses of the city assault and capture of Fort McAlister Hardee Evacuates Savannah. On December 16, 1863, I directed General J. E. Johnston to transfer the command of thewise certainly have been consumed. It soon became manifest that Savannah was General Sherman's objective point. That city was occupied by ecember 10th the enemy's columns reached the immediate vicinity of Savannah, and on the 12th they occupied a semicircular line extending from es of communication were still open. Although Sherman had reached Savannah, he had not yet opened communication with the Federal fleet. Fort nst the city. He proceeded immediately to take measures to invest Savannah, and in a few days had succeeded in doing so on every side of the n Causeway, which extends across the large swamps that lie between Savannah and Charleston, and offered the only practicable line of retreat,
uadron for an exchange of officers and crew of the Savannah for prisoners of war held by this Government, acco received of the treatment of the prisoners on the Savannah, that I have been compelled to withdraw these indue as shall be experienced by those captured on the Savannah; and, if driven to the terrible necessity of retalur execution of any of the officers or crew of the Savannah, that retaliation will be extended so far as shalluadron, to exchange for the prisoners taken on the Savannah an equal number of these now held by us according ut the same fate which might await the crew of the Savannah. These measures of retaliation arrested the cruel for the difficulty in reference to the crew of the Savannah. But this determination of the United States go distant from Georgia, and could not be brought to Savannah within a reasonable time, five thousand well men wpassed by some of those we received in exchange at Savannah. Why was there this delay between the summer and
at Fayetteville affair at Kinston cavalry exploits General Johnston Withdraws to Smithfield encounter at Averysboro battles of Bentonville Union of Sherman's and Schofield's forces Johnston's retreat to Raleigh. After the evacuation of Savannah by General Hardee, it soon became known that General Sherman was making preparations to march northward through the Carolinas with the supposed purpose of uniting his forces with those of General Grant before Richmond. General Hardee, having le. Had his objective point been Augusta, he would have had our army in his rear; had, as proved to be the case, Columbia been the place at which he aimed, our army would have been able to reach there sooner than he could. General Sherman left Savannah January 22, 1865, and reached Pocotaligo on the 24th. On February 3d he crossed the Salkehatchie with slight resistance at River's and Beaufort bridges, and thence pushed forward to the South Carolina Railroad at Midway, Bamberg, and Graham's.
lay and I were removed to Fortress Monroe, and there incarcerated in separate cells. Not knowing that the government was at war with women and children, I asked that my family might be permitted to leave the ship and go to Richmond or Washington city, or to some place where they had acquaintances, but this was refused. I then requested that they might be permitted to go abroad on one of the vessels lying at the Roads. This was also denied; finally, I was informed that they must return to Savannah on the vessel by which we came. This was an old transport ship, hardly seaworthy. My last attempt was to get for them the privilege of stopping at Charleston, where they had many personal friends. This also was refused—why, I did not then know, have not learned since, and am unwilling to make a supposition, as none could satisfactorily account for such an act of inhumanity. My daily experience as a prisoner shed no softer light on the transaction, but served only to intensify my extreme
481, 484, 530, 533, 534, 539, 540. Extract from report on battle of Shiloh, 51. Evacuation of Savannah, 484-85. Harmon, Colonel, 444, 445. Harold, David E., 417. Harriet Lane (gunboat), 196, 19rancisco (steamer), 266. Santissima Trinidad (ship), 234. Satellite (gunboat), 188. Savannah, Ga. Harbor defense, 172. Investment and evacuation, 484-85. Savannah (ship), 9, 494. SchaSavannah (ship), 9, 494. Schade, Louis, 418. Schenck, General, 97. establishment of martial law in western Maryland, 389. Schofield, General, 475, 488, 489, 534, 537, 540, 548, 592, 613, 618, 619, 621. Schopf, —, 16, 17, 18,467-70. Order for evacuation of civilians, 476-78. March through Georgia, 483-84. Capture of Savannah, 484-85. March from Savannah north, 530-40. Burning of Columbia, S. C., 531-32. Conferences Savannah north, 530-40. Burning of Columbia, S. C., 531-32. Conferences with J. E. Johnston on terms of surrender, 580-84, 587-88. Dr. Bachman's report of atrocities in South Carolina, 601-06. Shields, General, 92, 93, 94, 96. Shiloh, Battle of, 20, 39, 40, 41, 48-57,