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the Mississippi as well as the last where a decisive struggle was made for the control of the river. At this time, January, 1861, it was proposed that the Mississippi river should remain a free and unobstructed channel of commerce for the North as well as the South. The Louisiana convention so declared, and Governor Pettus also recommended that the most prompt and efficient measures be adopted to make known to the people of the Northwestern States that peaceful commerce on the Mississippi river will neither be interrupted nor annoyed by the people of Mississippi. But the great likelihood of some cause of irritation arising from the joint use by the two Cincinnati, appeared in the river and, attempting to pass on her way down, was fired on by Captain Kerr. This was the first shot fired during the war on the Mississippi river. When it was learned that the forts and arsenals below Vicksburg were in the hands of Louisiana, the military force at Vicksburg was withdrawn and the riv
Chapter 4: Defense of the Mississippi river Albert Sidney Johnston's army State troops in Kentucky battle of Belmont Fishing Creek-Fort Henry Fort Donelson reorganization at Corinth battle of Shiloh. While, as we have seen, Mississippi soldiers were fully maintaining the honor of the State on the Gulf coast and the Potomac river, the State itself reposed in confident security. The enlistment of more troops was not thought necessary after the victory at Manassas, and though it soon became apparent that more soldiers were needed, the immense possibilities of the war were far from being realized. Gen. Mansfield Lovell, in command of the coast as well as New Orleans, felt supreme confidence in his ability to defeat any attempt to ascend the river, and the people placed great reliance in the strength of the plans made for resisting any invasion through Kentucky and Tennessee. But, toward the close of 1861, the government at Washington had arranged for an expedi
r people will fight. And so, from 60,001 free white men in the State in 1860-61 between ages of 21 and 50, Mississippi on August 1, 1863, had furnished to the Confederacy 63,908 volunteer soldiers. (See House Journal, November, 1862, and November, 1863, appendix, p. 76.) There has been no such exhibition of patriotism since Bruce and Wallace left the craigs of Scotland for battle. After the surrender of Island No.10, General Beauregard ordered the destruction of cotton along the Mississippi river, to prevent its falling into the hands of the enemy, and apprehensions were entertained that Vicksburg might soon be attacked by the Federals. Some troops were sent there, and fortifications were begun under Capt. D. B. Harris, chief of engineers. Colonel Autry was at this time military commander at Vicksburg. Capt. Ed. A. Porter reported from Holly Springs, June 6th, that, acting under orders, he had caused to be burned in Fayette, Shelby and Tipton counties, Tenn., and Marshall
Chapter 6: Blockade of the Mississippi river Ship Island Biloxi and Pass Christian fall of New Orleans First attack on Vicksburg exploits of the ram Arkansas battle of Baton Rouge. The proclamation of blockade issued by President Lincoln April 19, 1861, was put in force for the Mississippi river in June, whenMississippi river in June, when the Powhatan and Brooklyn took position off the passes. Other war vessels were presently added to the blockading squadron. Following this the launches of the hostile ships began a series of marauding expeditions in Mississippi Sound, and to stop this an expedition was organized by Captain Higgins. With two lake steamers, armed s division guarded the flank approaches, a duty which was shared by Withers' light artillery, while Starke's cavalry served on outpost duty on the Yazoo and Mississippi rivers. The batteries now mounted 29 guns, of which two were 10-inch Columbiads, the rest being old style 42 and 32 pounders. The fire from the enemy's boats b
ere they were defeated on December 5th by troops under command of Gen. Lloyd Tilghman; the Twenty-third Mississippi, Lieut.-Col. Moses McCarley; the Twenty-sixth, Maj. T. F. Parker; and the Fourteenth, Major Doss, being the principal Confederate forces engaged. In the meantime Hovey was taken care of by Colonel Starke's cavalry and the various outposts, and after skirmishes at the mouth of the Coldwater on the Yockhapatalfa, at Mitchell's Cross-roads and Oakland, he retreated to the Mississippi river, having done little damage except burning some bridges and sinking the steamer New Moon on the Tallahatchie. Grant waited at Oxford for Sherman to make his way down the river, but the latter did not reach Friar's Point with his advance until December 21st, and meanwhile a great change in the situation had been wrought by the Confederate cavalry. On the 19th Nathan B. Forrest, then a brigadier-general, a brilliant soldier in whose exploits Mississippi felt a motherly pride, as his you
ed the three gunboats already below Warrenton. Pemberton now hastily recalled the brigades sent to Bragg, and notified the Trans-Mississippi commander that the enemy is cutting a passage from near Young's Point to Bayou Vidal, to reach the Mississippi river near New Carthage. Without co-operation, it is impossible to oppose him. The troops under command of Lieut.-Gen. John C. Pemberton in April, 1863, were organized as follows: Stevenson's division. Maj.-Gen. Carter L. Stevenspresent expressed themselves favorable to the movement indicated by General Johnston. The others, including Major-Generals Loring and Stevenson, preferred a movement by which the army might attempt to cut off the enemy's supplies from the Mississippi river. My own views were strongly expressed as unfavorable to any advance which would separate me farther from Vicksburg, which was my base. I did not, however, see fit to put my own judgment and opinions so far in opposition as to prevent a mo