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cedure of the colonies were utterly at variance with the maxims that prevailed at the Board of Trade. In April, 1724, the seals for the Southern Department and the colonies had been intrusted to the Duke of Newcastle. His advancement by Sir Robert Walpole, who shunned men of talents as latent rivals, was owing to his rank, wealth, influence over boroughs, and personal imbecility. For nearly four-and-twenty years he remained minister for British America; yet to the last, the statesman, who er Bedford, though fond of theatricals and jollity, Pelham to Newcastle in Coxe's Pelham Administration, II. 365. was yet capable of persevering in a system chap. I.} 1748. Newcastle was of so fickle a head, and so treacherous a heart, that Walpole called his name Perfidy; Lord John Russell's Introduction to the Bedford Correspondence, i. XXVI. Henry Fox, the first Lord Holland, said, he had no friends, and deserved none; and Lord Halifax used to revile him, in the strongest terms, as a
rty years, I have been near thirty years in the Council of this Province, * * and, in all that time, I do not remember that any public money was drawn by any governor from the Treasury and applied to any other use than what it was designed for by the Assembly that granted it, except for a perquisite which the King's Auditor of his revenue claimed; and you know, sir, what influence the governors were under at that time to make them do this. Horatio Walpole, the Auditor, was brother to Sir Robert Walpole. Ms. Letter to Governor Shirley from New York, July 1749. had vainly struggled, as auditor-general of the colonies, to chap. II.} 1749. gain a sinecure allowance of five per cent. on all colonial revenues, reported a bill to overrule charters, and to make all orders by the king, or under his authority, the highest law of America. Such a coalition of power seemed in harmony with that legislative supremacy, which was esteemed the great whig doctrine of the revolution of 1683; it al
also avoided the reproaches of the colonists by never enforcing it. This forbearance is, in part, also, to be ascribed to the moderation of character of Sir Robert Walpole. He rejected the proposition for a colonial stamp-tax, being content with the tribute to British wealth from colonial commerce; and he held that the Americ generous and safe; but can a minister excuse his own acts of despotic legislation by chap. IV.} 1751. his neglect to enforce them? The administration of Sir Robert Walpole had left English statutes and American practice more at variance than ever. Woe to the British statesman who should hold it a duty to enforce the British l, two, or three pence sterling money of Great Britain per gallon, may be matter of consideration. The time was come when it was resolved to discard the policy of Walpole. Opinions were changing on the subject of a stamp-tax; and the Board of Trade, in 1751, entered definitively on the policy of regulating trade, so as to uproot i
d the Dauphin, that had for several days been separated from their squadron, fell in with the British fleet off Cape Race, the southernmost point of Newfoundland. Between ten and eleven in the morning of the eighth, the Alcide, under Hocquart, was within hearing of the Dunkirk, a vessel of sixty guns, commanded by Howe. Are we at peace or war? asked Hocquart. The French affirm, that the answer to them was, Peace, Peace; till Boscawen gave the signal to engage. Precis des Faits, 278. Walpole's Memoires of Geo. II., i., 889. Barrow's Life of Howe. Howe, who was as brave as he was taciturn, obeyed the order promptly; and the Alcide and Lys yielded to superior force. The Dauphin, being a good sailer, scud safely for Louisburg. Nine more of the French chap. VIII.} 1755. squadron came in sight of the British, but were not intercepted; and, before June was gone, Dieskau and his troops, with De Vaudreuil, who superseded Duquesne as governor of Canada, landed at Quebec, Vaudreuil
ron, it was replied, is but nine. I mean that, resumed Newcastle, of the merchantmen only. Thus he proceeded with inconceivable absurdity. Dodington's Diary. Walpole's Memoires of George III. and letters. Waldegrave's Memoirs. Flassan: Histoire de la Diplomatie Francoise, VI. France and England were still at peace; and theithe sneer of Granville; and Newcastle did not recover courage till in November Fox consented to accept the seals and defend the treaties. At the great debate, Walpole's Memoires of George I., i. 418. Pitt taunted the majority, which was as three to one, with corruption and readiness to follow their leader; and, indirectly attacrd George Sackville charged the situation of affairs in America on the defects of the constitution cf the colonies. He would have one power established there. Walpole's Memoires of Geo. II., II., 8. The militia law of Pennsylvania, he said, was designed to be ineffectual. It offered no compulsion, and, moreover, gave the nomin
e, with the concurrence of the king, would have separated his establishment from that of his mother. They both were opposed to the separation. Pitt exerted his influence against it, with a zeal and activity to which they were most sensible. Walpole's Memoires of George II., II. 39. The Earl of Bute had been one of the lords of the bed-chamber to Frederic, the late Prince of Wales, who used to call him a fine, showy man, such as would make an excellent ambassador in a court where there xpressed his desires, nay, his fixed resolutions, to have the free choice of his servants. Chatham Corr. i. 171. This family, said Granville of the Hanoverian dynasty, always has quarrelled, and will quarrel from generation to generation. Walpole's Memoires, II. 63, 85, 86. Having wantoned with the resentment of the successor and his mother, Newcastle became terrified and yielded. The king gave his consent reluctantly. You, said he angrily to Fox, you have made me make that puppy Bute,
y, which had for its principle to fight up alike against the king and against the people. The inebriate Granville, the President of the Council, would have infused his jovial intrepidity into the junto of Fox; but Fox himself was desponding. Walpole's Memoires. Bedford had his scheme, which he employed Rigby to establish; and when it proved impracticable, indulged himself in reproaches, and the display of Bedford Corr. II. 245. anger, and withdrew to Woburn Abbey. In the midst of war, hat rested upon mediaeval traditions. For years had it been whispered that the House of Austria should unite itself firmly with the House of Bourbon; Sir Charles Hanbury Williams to a private friend. Dresden, 27 August, 1747, in Appendix to Walpole's Memoires, II. 474. and now the Empress Maria Theresa, herself a hereditary queen, a wife and a mother, religious even to bigotry, by an autograph letter caressed endearingly the Marchioness de Pompadour, once the French king's mistress, now th
t extremity; and, on the seventeenth of September, before the English had constructed batteries, De Ramsay capitulated. America rung with exultation; the towns were bright with illuminations, the hills with bonfires; legislatures, the pulpit, the press, echoed the general joy; provinces and families gave thanks to God. England, too, which had shared the despondency of Wolfe, triumphed at his victory and wept for his death. Joy, grief, curiosity, amazement, were on every countenance. Walpole's Memoires of the Reign of Geo. II. When the parliament assembled, Pitt modestly and gracefully put aside the praises that were showered on him. The more a man is versed in business, said he, the more he finds the hand of Providence every where. I will own I have a zeal to serve my country beyond what the weakness of my frail body admits of; Report of the speech by Jared Ingersoll of Connecticut, in a letter dated 22 December, 1759. and he foretold new successes at sea. November fulfill
pose are we called to this council? When he talks of being responsible to the people, he talks the language of the House of Commons, and forgets that at this board he is responsible only to the king. Annual Register, IV. 42. Hist. Minority. Walpole's George III, IV. 144. Adolphus, i. 44. The Duke of Newcastle was never seen in higher spirits, Sir George Colebrooke's Memoirs in a note to Walpole's Geo. III., i. 82. than on this occasion. His experienced hand Pitt to Nuthall, inWalpole's Geo. III., i. 82. than on this occasion. His experienced hand Pitt to Nuthall, in Chatham Corr. II. 345. chap XVII.} 1761 had been able to mould and direct events so as to thwart the policy of Pitt by the concerted junction of Bute and all the great Whig Lords. The minister attributed his defeat not so much to the king and Bute as to Newcastle and Bedford; yet the king was himself a partner in the conspiracy; and as he rejected the written advice that Pitt and Temple had given him, the man whose Grattan's Character of Pitt. august presence overawed majesty, resolved t