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t are some of the negro troops that have been formed from contrabands. The passions of the period waxed particularly bitter over the question of employing Negroes in warfare. Charles Graham Halpine comes to the rescue, in his poem that follows on page 176, with a saving sense of Irish humor. He suggests that men who object to Sambo should take his place and fight. As for himself, he will object not at all if Sambo's body should stop a ball that was coming for me direct. This recalls Artemas Ward's announcement of his own patriotism, which he said he had carried so far that he was willing for all his wife's relatives to go to the front! The human side of this problem helps to solve it, as with others. Certainly, the line above presents a firm and soldierly front. Many of the colored regiments came to be well-disciplined and serviceable. Their bravery is attested by the loss of life at Battery Wagner and in the charges at the Petersburg crater. The lighter side: Sambo's ri
he patriotic volunteers, and very soon all New England was represented at Cambridge in a motley host of full 20,000 men. On the afternoon of the 20th (April) Gen. Artemas Ward assumed the chief command of the gathering volunteers. The Provincial Congress labored night and day to provide for their organization and support. The se Congress convened at Philadelphia (May 10), and on June 7, in a resolution for a general fast, had spoken for the first time of the twelve united colonies. Gen. Artemas Ward, of Massachuetts, the senior in command of the provincial militia, assumed the chief command of the volunteers who gathered near Boston after the skirmishes e in Cambridge, he formally assumed the command of the army, then numbering about 16,000 men, all New-Englanders. The following were appointed his assistants: Artemas Ward, Charles Lee, Philip Schuyler, and Israel Putnam, major-generals; and Seth Pomeroy, Richard Montgomery, David Wooster, William Heath, Joseph Spencer, John Thom
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Averasboro, battle of. (search)
Hardee intrenched near Averasboro with about 20,000 men. General Williams, with the 20th Corps, took the lead in making an attack, and very soon he broke the Confederate left wing into fragments and drove it back upon a second and stronger line. Ward's division pushed the fugitives and captured three guns and 217 men; and the Confederates left 108 of their dead on the field. Kilpatrick was just securing a footing on the road to Bentonville when he was furiously attacked by McLaw's division, an the road to Bentonville when he was furiously attacked by McLaw's division, and, after a hard fight, was pushed back. Then the whole of Slocum's line advanced, drove Hardee within his intrenchments, and pressed him so heavily that on the dark and stormy night of March 16. 1865, he retreated to Smnithfield. Slocum lost in the battle seventy-seven killed and 477 wounded. Hardee's loss was estimated at about the same. Ward pursued the fugitives through Averasboro. butt soon gave up the chase.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Boston, (search)
March, 1776. Fortifications were built, a thorough organization of the army was effected, and all that industry and skill could do, with the materials in hand, to strike an effectual blow was done. All through the remainder of the summer and the autumn of 1775 these preparations went on, and late in the year the American army around Boston, 14,000 strong, extended from Roxbury, on the right, to Prospect Hill 2 miles northwest of Breed's Hill, on the left. The right was commanded by Gen. Artemas Ward, and the left by Gen. Charles Lee. The centre, at Cambridge, was under the immediate command of Washington. The enlistments of many of the troops would expire with the year. Many refused to re-enlist. The Connecticut troops demanded a bounty; and when it was refused, because the Congress had not authorized it, they resolved to leave camp in a body. Many did go, and never came back. But at that dark hour new and patriotic efforts were made to keep up the army, and at the close of
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bunker Hill, battle of. (search)
mpletely blockaded Boston on the land side, and effectively held the British troops as prisoners on the peninsula. Gen. Artemas Ward, the military head of Massachusetts, was regarded, by common consent, as the commander-in-chief of this New Englandsland forces were at Jamaica Plain, under General Greene, with a regiment of Connecticut troops under General Spencer. General Ward commanded the left wing at Cambridge. The Connecticut and New Hampshire troops were in the vicinity. It was made k in the town he felt assured that he could easily repulse any assailants, and it was nine o'clock before he applied to General Ward for reinforcements. Putnam had urged, early in the morning, the sending of troops. Ward, believing Cambridge to be tWard, believing Cambridge to be the point of attack, would not consent to sending more than a part of Stark's New Hampshire regiment at first. Finally, the remainder was sent; also, the whole of Colonel Reed's regiment on Charlestown Neck was ordered to reinforce Prescott. General
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Knox, Henry 1750- (search)
Knox, Henry 1750- Military officer; born in Boston, July 25, 1750; was of Scotch- Henry Knox. Irish stock. He became a thriving bookseller in Boston, and married Lucy, daughter of Secretary Flucker. He belonged to an artillery company when the Revolution began, and his skill as an engineer artillerist on the staff of Gen. Artemas Ward attracted the attention of Washington. In November (1775) he was placed in command of the artillery, and was employed successfully in bringing cannon from captured forts on Lake Champlain and on the Canadian frontier to Cambridge, for the use of the besieging army. Knox was made a brigadier-general in December, 1776, and was the chief commander of the artillery of the main army throughout the whole war, being conspicuous in all the principal actions. He was one of the court of inquiry in Major Andres case; was in command at West Point after hostilities had ceased, and arranged for the surrender of New York. At Knox's suggestion, the Society o
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Osgood, Samuel 1748- (search)
Osgood, Samuel 1748- Statesman; born in Andover, Mass., Feb. 14, 1748; graduated at Harvard University in 1770; studied theology, and became a merchant. An active patriot, he was a member of the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts and of various committees; was a captain at Cambridge in 1775, and aide to General Artemas Ward, and became a member of the Massachusetts board of war. He left the army in 1776 with the rank of colonel, and served in his provincial and State legislature. He was a member of Congress from 1780 to 1784; first commissioner of the United States treasury from 1785 to 1789, and United States Postmaster-General from 1789 to 1791. He afterwards served in the New York legislature, and was speaker of the Assembly from 1801 to 1803. From 1803 until his death, in New York City, Aug. 12, 1813, lie was naval officer of the port of New York. Mr. Osgood was well versed in science and literature.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Provincial Congresses (search)
m they delegated large powers. They were authorized to call out the militia of the province, and perform other acts of sovereignty. Another committee was authorized to procure ammunition and military stores, for which purpose more than $60,000 were appropriated. A receiver-general, Henry Gardiner, was appointed, into whose hands the constables and taxcollectors were directed to pay all moneys received by them. They made provision for arming the province, and appointed Jeremiah Preble, Artemas Ward, and Seth Pomeroy general officers of the militia. They also authorized the enrolment of 12,000 minute-men, and, assuming both legislative and executive powers, received the allegiance of the people generally. So passed away royal rule in Massachusetts, and the sovereignty of the people was established in the form of the Provincial Congress. Gage issued a proclamation denouncing their proceedings, to which no attention was paid. The Provincial Congress of New Hampshire assembled at
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Puritans, (search)
e—the right to exercise private judgment. Unsettled persons —Latitudinarian in religion—came to enjoy freedom and to disseminate their views. In that dissemination Puritanism saw a prophecy of subversion of its principles. Alarmed, it became a persecutor in turn. God forbid, said Governor Dudley in his old age, our love for truth should be grown so cold that we should tolerate errors—I die no libertine. To say that men ought to have liberty of conscience is impious ignorance, said Parson Ward, of Ipswich, a leading divine. Religion admits of no eccentric notions, said Parson Norton, another leading divine and persecutor of so-called Quakers in Boston. The early settlers in New England regarded the Indians around them as something less than human. Cotton Mather took a short method of solving the question of their origin. He guessed that the devil decoyed the miserable savages hither in hope that the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ would never come here to destroy or disturb
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Massachusetts (search)
husetts, at Salem, adjourns to Concord, and chooses John Hancock president, and Benjamin Lincoln, a farmer of Hingham and afterwards a major-general in the Revolutionary army, secretary......Oct. 1, 1774 [This Congress constituted a permanent committee of safety, with comprehensive military powers; it made a complete organization of the militia, embodied a force of minute-men, consisting of one quarter part of the force of the colony, and appointed to the chief command Jedediah Preble, Artemas Ward, and Seth Pomeroy; it proceeded to carry on the government; collectors of taxes were ordered to pay no more money to the late treasurer of the province, but to hand over all future collections to a treasurer appointed by the Congress.] Josiah Tucker, dean of Gloucester, England, declares the North American colonies should be a free and independent people......1774 Provincial Congress of Massachusetts, consisting of upwards of 300 members, meet at Cambridge......Feb. 1, 1775 Gov
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