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ll versed in various navigation, had revolved the design of accomplishing the discovery of the north-western passage; esteeming it the only thing of the world, that was yet left undone, by which a notable minde might be made famous and fortunate. Best, in Hakluyt, III. 86. Too poor himself to provide a ship, it was in vain that he conferred with friends; in vain he offered his services to merchants. After years of desire, his representations found a hearing at court; and Dudley, earl of Warwick, liberally promoted his design. Willes's Essay for M. Frobisher's voyage, in Eden and Willes, fol. 230, and ff.; in Hakluyt, III. 47—52. Two small barks of twenty-five and of twenty tons', with a pinnace of ten tons' burden, composed the whole fleet, which was to enter gulfs that none before him had visited. As they June 8. dropped down the Thames, Queen Elizabeth waved her hand in token of favor, and, by an honorable message, transmitted her approbation of an adventure which her own t
eceive the appointment. The company resisted the royal interference as an infringement of their charter; and the choice of the meeting fell by acclamation upon the earl of Southampton, the early friend of Shakespeare. Having thus vindicated their own rights, the company proceeded to redress former wrongs, and to provide colonial liberty with its written guarantees. In the case of the appeal to the London company from sentence of death pronounced by Argall, his friends, with the earl of Warwick at their head, had voted, that trial by martial law is the noblest kind of trial, because soldiers and men of the sword were the judges. This opinion was reversed, and the rights of the colonists to trial by jury sustained. Nor was it long before the freedom of the northern fisheries was equally asserted, and the monopoly of a rival Chap. IV.} 1621. corporation successfully opposed. Lord Bacon, who, at the time of Newport's first voyage with emigrants for Virginia, classed the enterp
ng the indignation of the general court at their wrongs. Colony Laws, c. XII When George Fox visited Barbadoes in 1671, he 1671. enjoined it upon the planters, that they should deal mildly and gently with their negroes; and that, after certain years of servitude, they should make them free. The idea of George Fox had been anticipated by the fellow-citizens of Gorton and Roger Williams. Nearly 1652. May 18. twenty years had then elapsed, since the representatives of Providence and Warwick, perceiving the disposition of people in the colony to buy negroes, and hold them as slaves forever, had enacted that no black mankind should, by covenant, bond, or otherwise, be held to perpetual service; the master, at the end of ten years, shall set them free, as the manner is with English servants; and that man that will not let his slave go free, or shall sell him away, to the end that he may be enslaved to others for a longer time, shall forfeit to the colony forty pounds. George
he advice and approbation of the majority of the freemen or their deputies. Representative government was indissolubly connected with the fundamental charter; and it was especially provided, that the authority of the absolute proprietary should not extend to the life, freehold, or estate of any emigrant. These were the features which endeared the proprietary government to the people of Maryland; and, but for these, the patent would have been as worthless as those of the London company, of Warwick, of Gorges, or of Mason. It is a singular fact, that the only proprietary charters, productive of considerable emolument to their owners, were those which conceded popular liberty. For the benefit of the colony, the statutes restraining emigration were dis- Chap. VII.} 1632. pensed with; and, at the appointment of the Baron of Baltimore, all present and future liege people of the English king, except such as should be expressly forbidden, might freely transport themselves and their fami
rant of a charter from the crown, they sought the concurrence of the Council of Plymouth for New England; they were befriended in their application by the Earl of Warwick, and obtained the approbation of Sir Ferdinando Gorges; and on the nineteenth of March, 1628, that body, which had proved itself incapable of colonizing its domaihat village one day engage the attention of the world? Meantime the fame of the liberties of Massachusetts Chap IX.} extended widely: the good-natured earl of Warwick, a friend to advancement in civil liberty, though not a republican, offered his congratulations on its prosperity; and in a single year three thousand new settler season to anticipate the rival designs of the Dutch. The valley of the Connecticut had early become an 1630 object of desire and of competition. The earl of Warwick was the first proprietary of the soil, under a grant from the council for New England; and it was next held by Lord Say and Seal, Lord Brooke, John 1631 Mar. 19.
h the confederacy afforded, the people of Connecticut desired no guaranty for their independence from the government of England; taking care only, by a regular purchase, to 1644 obtain a title to the soil from the assigns of the earl 1646. of Warwick. Trumbull, i. App. v. and VI. The people of Rhode Island, excluded Chap. X.} from the colonial union, would never have maintained their existence as a separate state, had they not sought the interference and protection of the mother countrye founder of the colony was chosen to conduct 1643 the important mission. Embarking at Manhattan, he arrived in England not long after the death of Hampden. The parliament had placed the affairs of the American colonies under the control of Warwick, as governor-in-chief, assisted by a council of five peers and twelve commoners. Hazard, i. 533. 535. Among these commoners was Henry Vane, a man who was ever as true in his affections as in his principles, and who now welcomed the American e