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George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 10 326 0 Browse Search
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ers, which are all written in the French language, will be published in Paris. I sought for some expression, on the part of Frederic, of a personal interest in Washington; but I found none. The Chevalier von Arneth, so honorably known as historian, editor, and critic of integrity and acuteness, had the exceeding goodness to dire of the Public Record Office, for the very obliging manner in which he gives effect to the permission granted me, and aids my researches. To Mr. Spofford, of Washington, I owe two volumes of the manuscript correspondence of General Greene. Mr. Seward, in the State Department, and his successor Mr. Fish, with equal friendliness of America, is due exclusively to Jay. It is good to look away from the strifes of the present hour, to the great days when our country had for its statesmen Washington and John Adams, Jefferson and Hamilton, Franklin and Jay, and their compeers. The study of those times will always teach lessons of moderation, and of unselfis
gainst the most considerable Protestant power in Germany. In the attempt England shot so wildly from its sphere that Newcastle was forced to bend to William Pitt; and then England and Prussia, and the embryon United States,—Pitt, Frederic, and Washington,—worked together for human freedom. The seven years war extended the English colonies to the Mississippi and gave Canada to England. We conquered America in Germany, said the elder Pitt, ascribing to Frederic a share in the extension of the G the Boston tea-party of 1773 among the prodigious events which stamp themselves most deeply on the mind of childhood. Goethe's Briefe, III. 1420, 1421. Like everybody around him he wished the Americans success, and the names of Franklin and Washington shone and sparkled in his heaven of politics and war. Goethe's Werke, XXII. 321. When to all this was added reform in France, he and the youth of Germany promised themselves and all their fellow-men a beautiful and even a glorious future.
y, 1777, the American commissioners at Paris transmitted to Frederic a copy of the declaration of independence, and of the articles of American confederation, with the formal expression of the earnest desire of the United States to obtain his friendship, and to establish a mutually beneficial free commerce between their distant countries. The great king received from Franklin with unmingled satisfaction the manifesto of the republic and its first essay at a constitution. The victories of Washington at Trenton and Princeton had already proved to him that the colonies were become a nation. He supported the rights of neutrals in their fullest extent; and, when England began to issue letters of marque, he stigmatized privateers as pirates of the sea. Frederic to Goltz, 24 Feb., 1777. But, as to a direct commerce, he could only answer as before: I am without a navy; having no armed ships to protect trade, the direct commerce could be conducted only under the flag of the Netherlands, a
dwalader. Unmoved by the apathy of so many, Washington crossed the Delaware sixteen miles above Trmander-in-chief must surely fail. Upon this Washington intrusted it to Lafayette, who marched towaras done to himself and to Lord Stirling. As Washington heard him unmoved, he wrote to Lafayette: Myentyseventh; but just after noon on that day Washington, summoning the generals to headquarters, insarch from Monmouth, Lee remained inert, till Washington, who was the first to be in motion, sent himd against them. Upon this Lafayette sent to Washington, that his presence on the field was needed; ansmitted to the commander-in-chief. When Washington encountered the fugitives, he, in a voice ofund shelter in the highlands of Middleburg. Washington then marched towards the North river; the Br whole country resounded with the praises of Washington, and congress unanimously thanked him for hiising a rotation in military office, so that Washington might be removed; and for the United States [11 more...]
unted to two thousand pounds in Connecticut currency. In the winter of 1776, the people aided Washington with two companies of infantry, though their men were all needed to protect their own homes. their engagements. For want of an organized government congress could do no more than empower Washington to call upon the six states north of the Delaware for aids of militia, while its financial meaestaing to Gerard de Rayneval, in Gerard de Rayneval to the Count de Vergennes, 15 July, 1778. Washington proposed to employ the temporary superiority at sea in the capture of Rhode Island and its garother general orders made reparation. He should have instantly withdrawn from the island; and Washington sent him incessant messages to do so. On Honyman's hill he was wasting strength in raising batstance; in 1777 Philadelphia was taken, but only to be evacuated in 1778. To a friend in Virginia Washington wrote in August, as he came again upon White Plains: After two years manoeuvring and the
. Francis, to enter Montreal; a fifth, to guard the approaches from Quebec: while to France was assigned the office of reducing Quebec and Halifax. Lafayette would willingly have used his influence at Versailles in favor of the enterprise: but Washington showed how far the part reserved for the United States went beyond their Chap. VII.} 1778. resources; and, in deference to his advice, the speculative scheme was laid aside. The spirit of independence none the less grew in strength. Almos States completely failed; and each state maintained its separate line. There were thirteen distinct sovereignties and thirteen armies, with scarcely a symbol of national unity except in the highest offices. From the height of his position, Washington was the first keenly to feel and clearly to declare, that efficient power must be infused into the general gov- Chap. VII.} 1778. ernment. To the speaker of the house of delegates of Virginia he wrote in December, 1778: If the great whole is
self to a defensive campaign. Writings of Washington, ed. Sparks, VI. 217. Measures for the rwas more busy than ever in whispers against Washington. Chap. IX.} 1779. Most men thought the war tion of the army to a shadow. Writings of Washington, ed. Sparks, VI. 168. Few of them were willi, invincible resource of the Americans. If Washington Chap. IX.} 1779. could not drive the Britis levies were raised by draft. Writings of Washington, ed. Sparks, VI. 156. Four years of hard service and of reflection had ripened in Washington the conviction of the need of a national govern cause, the cause of mankind. Writings of Washington, ed. Sparks, VI. 211. But to the men of Virgin, and their disappointed hope from Russia. Washington to George Mason, Middlebrook, 27 March, 1779. Copied by me from Ms. draft in Washington's handwriting: printed from the papers of George Mason,ition; and, from the military point of view, Washington preferred that Spain should possess the Flor[4 more...]
n cries of distressed women and helpless children. Writings of Washington, ed. Sparks, VI. 367. Early the next morning the conflagration waooner had they strongly fortified themselves at Stony Point, than Washington, after ascertaining exactly the character of their works, formed lliant achievement. The diminishing numbers of the troops with Washington not permitting him to hold Stony Point, the cannon and stores were fort at Paulus' Hook, now Jersey city, obtained the approval of Washington. The place was defended by a ditch, which made of it an island, y Valley, congress, on the twenty-fifth of February, had directed Washington to protect the inland frontier and chastise the Seneca Indians. Its command, which Gates declined, devolved on Sullivan, to whom Washington in May gave repeatedly the May. instruction: Move as light as po an extraordinary case, and requires extraordinary attention. Washington to Sullivan, Middlebrook, 31 May, 1779. Yet Sullivan made insatia
a heavy mould and inert of will. Towards the end of 1776, he had repaired to Washington's camp as a major-general of militia; in the following February, he was transloss to their ships. The continental regiments of North Carolina were with Washington's army; the legislature of that state promptly called out two thousand of itstermaster-general, requested of the commander-in-chief the southern command. Washington answered that Greene would be his choice, but he was not consulted. The armyof this unfortunate class of men. Two days later, the elder Laurens wrote to Washington: Had we arms for three thousand such black men as I could select in Carolina,sh out of Georgia, and subduing East Florida before the end of July. To this Washington answered: The policy of our arming slaves is in my Chap. XIII.} 1779. opinigainst their owners or to run away; the United States seemed indifferent; and Washington's army was too weak to protect so remote a government. Many began to regret
of the continental squadron, which carried a hundred and fifty guns, reported their inability to guard it. Then, wrote Washington, the attempt to defend the town ought to have been relinquished. But Lincoln was intent only on strengthening its fortf the southern department of which he could dispose. Collecting the whole force for the defence of Charleston, thought Washington, is putting much to hazard. I dread the event. Washington to Steuben in Writings of Washington, ed. Sparks, VII. 10Washington to Steuben in Writings of Washington, ed. Sparks, VII. 10. But he was too remote to be heard in time. The period of enlistment of the North Carolina Chap. XIV.} 1780. April 7. militia having expired, most of them returned home. On the seventh of April, the remains of the Virginia line, seven hundred vWashington, ed. Sparks, VII. 10. But he was too remote to be heard in time. The period of enlistment of the North Carolina Chap. XIV.} 1780. April 7. militia having expired, most of them returned home. On the seventh of April, the remains of the Virginia line, seven hundred veterans, entered Charleston, having in twenty-eight days marched five hundred miles to certain captivity. On the ninth, Arbuthnot, taking advantage of a 9. gentle east wind, brought his ships into the harbor, without suffering from Fort Moultrie
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