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he great conception of the age, the doctrine of Roger Williams and Descartes, freedom of conscience. Approbatem, the father-in-law of the younger Winthrop; R. Williams to J. Winthrop, Jr., in Knowles, 310. You were ther, from my soul, honor and love them. one whom Roger Williams honored and loved, and whom Milton is supposed nd Quakers, and the freemen of Rhode Island, Roger Williams's Letters, in Knowles. were alike his eulogistslfare never suffered at the hands of plain men. Roger Williams had ever been a welcome guest at Hartford; and nly man, John Haynes, would say to him, I think, Mr. Williams, I must now confesse to you, that the most wise arles II. with still greater liberality. When Roger Williams had succeeded in obtaining from the Long Parliaught office to advance their fortunes; he, like Roger Williams, parted with his little means for the public goBackus's History of the Baptists, and Knowles's Roger Williams. The Mass. Hist. Coll. contain many useful do
which were forming in the New World, and his benevolent designs were the results of his own moderation, the fruit of his personal character, without regard to the spirit of his age. In Rhode Island, intellectual freedom was a principle which Roger Williams had elicited from the sympathies of the people; in Maryland, it was the happy thought of the sovereign, who did not know that ideas find no secure shelter but in the breast of the multitude. The people are less easily shaken than the prince.everley, 79, 80. Having made himself familiar with Virginia, and employed the summer profitably, in the month of August he sailed for England from Boston. Hening, ii. 561. Hutchinson's Mass. i. 299 How unlike Winthrop and Haynes, Clarke and Williams! Virginia was impoverished; the low price of to- Chap. XIV.} 1680. bacco left the planter without hope. The assembly had attempted by legislation to call towns into being, and cherish manufactures. With little regard to colonial liberties,
the Indians did burn her to death with fire. one of the most extraordinary women of her age, worthy to be named with Roger Williams and George Fox, perished with her family. The Dutch colony was threatened with ruin. Mine eyes, says a witness, saatement. Compare other places, as x. 139, XXIV. 55. II. The views of the Indians are given in De Vries. Compare too R. Williams in Knowles, 275. III. The N. England statements, in Winthrop, II. 96, 97, 136. Gorton, 59. Hubbard, 441, and 365. id 1651 to 1654 not extend to America; we have seen the prudence of Massachusetts restrain the colonies; in England, Roger Williams Williams, in Knowles, 263.delayed an armament against New Netherland. It is true, that the West India Company, drWilliams, in Knowles, 263.delayed an armament against New Netherland. It is true, that the West India Company, dreading an attack from New England, had instructed 1652 Aug. 15. their governor to engage the Indians in his cause. Albany Records, IV. 84. But compare Albany Records, IV. 120; VII. 147—150: Trumbull, i. 202: Second Amboyna Tragedy, Hazard, II. 2
74. any respect to rich or poor, to great or small. The sound of the church bell in Nottingham, the home of his boyhood, struck to his heart; like Milton and Roger Williams, his soul abhorred the hireling ministry of diviners for money; and on the morning of a firstday, he was moved to go to the great steeple-house and cry againshout dissimulation, which formed the basis of his character. The sentiment of cheerful humanity was irrepressibly strong in his bosom; as with John Eliot and Roger Williams, benevolence gushed prodigally from his ever-overflowing heart; and when, in his late old age, his intellect was impaired, and his reason prostrated by apoplee to abstain from violence; he had no message but peace; and not a drop of Quaker blood was ever shed by an Indian. Was there not progress from Melendez to Roger Williams? from Cortez and Pizarro to William Penn? The Quakers, ignorant of the homage which their virtues would receive from Voltaire and Raynal, men so unlike them
could scarcely comprehend. Spiritual religion is an enfranchising power, expanding and elevating the soul, a service of forms was analogous to the understanding of James; to attend mass, to build chapels, to risk the kingdom for a rosary,—this was within his grasp; he had no clear perception of religious truth. Freedom of conscience, always an ennobling conception, was, in that age, an idea yet standing on the threshold of the world, waiting to be ushered in; and none but exalted minds—Roger Williams and Penn, Vane, Fox, and Bun- 1677 yan—went forth to welcome it; no glimpse of it reached James, whose selfish policy, unable to gain immediate dominion for his persecuted priests and his confessor, begged at least for toleration. Debauching a woman on promise of marriage, he next allowed her to be traduced as having yielded to frequent prostitution, and then married her; he was conscientious, but his moral sense was as slow as his understanding. He was not bloodthirsty; but to a narr<
an break his bondage. The plebeian sect of Anabaptists, the scum of the reformation, with greater consistency than Luther, applied the doctrine of the reformation to the social relations of life, and threatened an end to kingcraft, spiritual dominion, tithes, and vassalage. The party was trodden under foot, with foul reproaches and most arrogant scorn; and its history is written in the blood of myriads of the German peasantry; but its principles, safe in their immortality, escaped with Roger Williams to Providence; and his colony is the witness that, naturally, the paths of the Baptists were paths of freedom, pleasantness, and peace. Luther finished his mission in the heart of Germany, under the safeguard of princes. In Geneva, a republic on the confines of France, Italy, and Germany, Calvin, appealing to the people for support, continued the career of enfranchisement by planting the institutions which nursed the minds of Rousseau, Necker, and De Stael. The political character