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parts moving in contact. The compounds are numerous, and include the following materials in various combinations: — Alloys. See anti-friction metals.Mucilage. Oils of various kinds. Alum.Pasteboard saturated with Asbestus.petroleum. Bitumen.Pith. Borings of Metal.Plumbago. Cork.Sal-ammoniac. Cotton.Shavings of wood. Fiber, Animal.Silicate of soda. Fiber, Vegetable.Steatite. Gelatine.Sulphur. Graphite.Talc. Gum.Tallow. Gypsum.Tannic acid. Lard.Wood saturated with oil. Lime.Wool flock. Anti-friction Metals. Alloys principally used for bearings of machinery and for journal boxes. Several are described under the head of alloy. Some variations are found in the formulas, comparatively few agreeing even in the composition of Babbitt's metal, patented in 1839, and so much used throughout this country and in Europe. The following table will give the composition of several: — Tin.Antimony.Copper.Zinc.Lead.Iron.Arsenic.Glass.Borax.Sulphur.Pruss. Potassa Ba
s from 24 to 48 hours, and the cloths are handled by machinery. Linen is now bleached in a similar way, but the operation is more troublesome and requires a longer time, on account of the greater affinity of the material for coloring matter. Wool is bleached by exposing it to the action of fuller's-earth and soap in a fulling-mill, after which it is washed and dried. When it is intended to preserve it white, it is usually run through water tinged with indigo, or exposed to the fumes of buwoven goods, used for binding. Among the materials used for bonnet-braid may be mentioned, — Bass or linden bark.Worsted thread. Cotton thread.Linen thread. Flax thread.Straw. Hemp.Chip. Horse-hair.Paper strips. Palm-leaf.Wood splints. Wool thread.Majuaja. Braid′er. A sewing-machine attachment provided with an opening to guide and lay a braid on the cloth under the action of the needle. The braidguiding opening may be in the presser and in advance of the needle-hole, or in th
tretching machine.Wadding-sizer. Silk-twister.Warp. Silk-winder.Warp-dresser. Singeing-machine.Warp-frame. Singer.Warping-hook. Singles.Warping-jack. Sinker.Warping-mill. Sizing-machine.Warp-machine. Skein.Waste-picking machine. Skewer.Water-frame. Skip.Water-laid. Water-twist.Wool-machinery. Waxing.Wool-oiler. Whirl.Wool-picker. Whirlers.Wool-press. Willowing.Wool-sorting. Willy.Wool-table. Wincing-machine.Wool-washer. Winding-machine.Worker. Wolf.Worsted. Woof.Yarn. Wool.Yarn-cleaner. Wool-burring machine.Yarn-dryer. Wool-cleaner.Yarn-printing machine. Wool-combing.Yarn-reel. Wool-dryer.Yarn-winder. Cot′ton-ade. (Fabric.) Cotton check. Cotton-bale tie. See bale-tie. Cot′ton-brush Chop′per. A machine with revolving knives to cut up the old dried cottonstalks, to prepare the land for plowing for another crop. Cot′ton-chop′per. An implement which is drawn over a drilled row of cotton-plants, and chops gaps in the row so as to
deaden noise. Doub′ling. 1. The second distillation of low wines. These are the product of the first distillation, and contain about one fifth alcohol. 2. The double course of shingles or slates at the eave of a house. 3. (Cotton or Wool.) Bringing two or more slivers of fiber together and forming them into one of greater thickness, to be again reduced by drawing; thus obtaining a sliver of uniform thickness. Doubling. The slivers from the carding-machine, each in its separe, with coloring substances. Fibrous materials differ in their relative disposition to lake color. Their disposition to absorb and retain color is in the following order, beginning with the one which has the greatest attraction for color: — Wool.Flax. Silk.Hemp. Cotton. Woolen goods dyed before weaving are called wooldyed; if after weaving, piece-dyed. Dye-colors are substantive or adjective. The former act directly, imparting their tints by simple immersion in their infusions
ended on the centers, etc. 3. The supply of material to a machine; as, — The water to a steam-boiler. The grain to a run of stones. Blanks to a coining-press, or punching-machine. Eyelets or planchets to the appropriate machines. Wool or cotton to a carding-machine, etc. Feed-bag. A nose-bag for a horse or mule, to contain his noon-day feed or luncheon. Feed-motions. Nail-plate feeder. Stock-feeder. Feed-cloth. (Fiber.) The apron which leads the cotton, r the microscope, and b beaver-down, which has a diameter of about 1/2000 of an inch. c, d, e, show musquash, nutria, and hare's fur. They all show the jagged edge which confers upon them the characteristic felting quality. Felting-fibers. Wool in the yolk, with the natural grease (suint) adhering to it, will not felt, because in this state the asperities of the fiber are filled and smoothed over, just as oil destroys the action of very fine files. Fine wool that has been scoured has st
ds by means of the ripple. It was the only material allowed for the garments of the priests and the bandaging of the dead. The ceremonial law of the Hebrews also prescribes linen for the priests. Cotton was then unknown, except as a curiosity. Wool was regarded as foul. We read of the Egyptian linen in Genesis, Chronicles, Proverbs, and Ezekiel. Pharaoh arrayed Joseph in vestures of fine linen, 1716 B. C. The mixture of flax and wool in a fabric was forbidden (Lev. XIX. 19). Solomon had lteemed for the manufacture of carpets from the very earliest times. It is quite clear from what we read in Homer, that they were in use in his time. The Gauls embroidered them in a different manner from that which is practiced by the Parthians. Wool is compressed, also, for making a felt, which, if soaked in vinegar, is capable of resisting iron even; and, what is still more, after having gone through the last process, wool will even resist fire; the refuse, too, when taken out of the vat of
lder contain water to cool the gaseous products of distillation. There are many minor variations of the apparatus, but it is a simple process, requiring an occasional change of the coke. Oil-gild′ing. A process of gilding in which the gold-leaf is laid on a surface prepared by a priming of whiting and size; several coats of clear cole, or transparent size; and an upper surface of oil-gold size, made of boiled linseed-oil and ochre, laid on by a brush. See gilding. Oil′ing. (Wool.) A stage in the manufacture of wool, which is first opened by the devil or willy, and then burred in a machine to remove impurities. The oiling follows, to prevent the fibers from becoming felted in the subsequent scribbling and carding. Oil-leath′er. (Leather.) Oil-leather is prepared by currying hides in oil. Neat's-foot oil is used, but fish-oil is more commonly employed; to this the French add potassa. It is both more economical and more effective. The hides are somewhat mo
n Cunningham's mode of furling sails by rolling the yard. The latter lies in the bight of the chain, and is rolled as it is raised or lowered, the yard-arms resting in hoops slung from the lifts. Parbuckle. Par′cel. (Nautical.) A wrapping of tarred canvas on a rope to prevent chafing. It is cut in long, narrow strips, well tarred, and made up into rolls before commencing to lay it on the rope. Usually, the rope is wormed, then parceled, and then served. See under those heads. Wool-Packer. Par′cel-ing-ma-chine′. 1. A press in which yarn, cloth, or wool, etc., is bundled up compactly for tying. See bundling-press, page 405; fleece-Tyer; Woolpacker, etc. The example is a machine for bundling and tying fleeces. The fleece is laid upon the table, the slotted belt brought over it and attached to the treadle-lever, whose depression draws the belt and brings up the twine-carrying fingers through the slots in the belt and over the fleece. 2. A machine in which s
were also exhibited. Skin′ning-ap′pa-ra′tus. A mechanical appliance for removing the hides from animals. The hide is ripped as usual, and the head laid bare; the horns being attached to a ring in the floor, a rope is fastened round the neck of the hide, and, running over the pulley on the floor, passes round the adjustable drum on the horizontal shaft, which is secured by a clutch. An endless rope on a grooved wheel works the shaft. Skinning-apparatus. Skips. Skin-wool. Wool pulled from the dead animal. Cornish skip. Skip. 1. (Mining.) A kind of bucket (a, Fig. 5136) employed in narrow or inclined shafts where the hoisting-device has to be confined between guides. It is held to the guides by friction-rollers and flanges, which bear against them, and is provided with a hinged door for discharging material. b. is a water-bucket, used in mines where the quantity to be raised is small, or previous to putting down a pump. On striking the water, the <
for wiping machinery, as an absorbent in railway axle-boxes, etc. Wool washing and wringing machine. 3. Paper scraps of an office, prie shuttle and laid in the shed. Also known as the shoot, or tram. Wool. 1. The fleece of the sheep. See articles following. 2. A slahe carding-machine. See also wool-picker. and Fig 993, page 412. Wool is also cleaned by treatment in a chamber with petroleum, or with su by drawingrollers; the noil being passed away into a receptacle. Wool′der. 1. (Nautical.) A stick used for tightly winding a rope rou it at the rate necessary to give the required hardness of twist. Wool′ing. Wrapping. As of the yarn in serving a rope. A wrapping of h Wool-dyed. Cloth whose fiber has been dyed before weaving. Wool′en cloth. Woolen cloth from the loom is made into broadcloth by a to an even length and smooth surface by shears, cutter, or fire. Wool′en Manu-fac′ture. The treatment of wool is according to its st