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Me'mmius 6. L. Memmiius, was an orator of some eminence during the war of Sulla with the Marian party, B. C. 87-81. (Cic. Brut. 36, 70, 89.) From Cicero (pro Sext. Rosc. 32) it would appear that Memmius was a supporter of C. Marius.
Mer'ula 3. L. Cornelius Merula, was flamen dialis, and, on the deposition of L. Cinna in B. C. 87, was elected consul in his place. [CORNELIUS CINNA, No. 2.] On the return of Marius from exile in the same year Merula was summoned to take his trial for illegally exercising the consulship. (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 113.) He had already resigned it, but his condemnation was certain. Merula therefore anticipated his sentence by opening his veins in the sanctuary of the Capitoline Jupiter. Before he inflicted his death-wounds he carefully laid aside his official head-dress (apex), and left a record in writing that he had not profaned by death the sacred emblem of his pontificate. His last breath was spent in imprecating curses on his murderers, Cinna and Marius. The priesthood of the flamen dialis was not filled up until 72 years after Merula's death. (Appian, App. BC 1, 65, 70, 75; Vell. 2.20, 22; Flor. 3.21.61; V. Max. 9.12.5; D. C. 54.36; Tac. Ann. 3.58; Plut. Mar. 41, 45; Plut. Quaest. Rom.
ved the surname of Pius on account of the love which he displayed for his father when he besought the people to recall him from banishment, in B. C. 99. He was about twenty years of age when he accompanied his father to Numidia in B. C. 109. He obtained the praetorship in B. C. 89, and was one of the commanders in the Marsic or Social war, which had broken out in the preceding year. He defeated and slew in battle Q. Pompaedius, the leader of the Marsians in B. C. 88. He was still in arms in B. C. 87, prosecuting the war against the Samnites, when Marius landed in Italy and joined the consul Cinna. The senate, in alarm, summoned Metellus to Rome; and, as the soldiers placed more confidence in him than in the consul Octavius, they entreated him to take the supreme command shortly after his arrival in the city. As he refused to comply with their request, numbers deserted to the enemy; and finding it impossible to hold out against Marius and Cinna, he left the city and went to Africa. Here
Metro'phanes (*Mhtrofa/nhs), a general of Mithridates the Great, who sent him with an army into Greece, to support Archelaus, B. C. 87. He reduced Euboea, as well as Demetrias and Magnesia in Thessaly, but was defeated by the Roman general Bruttius Sura. (Appian, App. Mith. 29.) He is again mentioned in B. C. 73, as commanding, together with the Roman exile L. Fannius, a detachment of the army of Mithridates, which was defeated by Mamercus during the siege of Cyzicus. (Oros. 6.2; comp. Sall. Hist. lib. iii. p. 217, ed. Gerlach. min.) [E.H.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Mithridates Eupator or Mithridates Magnus or Mithridates the Great (search)
Memnon, 31, Plut. Sull. 24; Liv. Epit. lxxviii.; Dio Cass. Fr. 115; Eutrop. 5.5; Oros. 6.2; Flor. 3.5; Cic. p. Leg. Manil. 3, pro Flacc. 24, 25; Tac. Ann. 4.14; V. Max. 9.2. ext. 3.) But while he thus created an apparently insuperable barrier to all hopes of reconciliation with Rome, Mithridates did not neglect to prepare for the approaching contest; and though he remained inactive himself at Pergamus, he was busily employed in raising troops and collecting ships, so that in the spring of B. C. 87 he was able to send Archelaus to Greece with a powerful fleet and army. During the subsequent operations of that general [ARCHELAUS], Mithridates was continually sending fresh reinforcements both by land and sea to his support; besides which he entrusted the command of a second army to his son Arcathias, with orders to advance through Thrace and Macedonia, to co-operate in the war against Sulla. The intended diversion was prevented by the death of Arcathias; but the following year (B. C. 86
Octavius 6. Cn. Octavius, son of No. 4. He was one of the staunch supporters of the aristocratical party, which was perhaps the reason that he failed in obtaining the aedileship. (Cic. pro Planc. 21.) He was consul in B. C. 87 with L. Cornelius Cinna, the year after the consulship of Sulla and the banishment of Marius and his leading partisans. Sulla was now absent in Greece, engaged in the war against Mithridates, and upon Octavius, therefore, devolved the support of the interests of his party. Immediately after Sulla's departure from Italy, Cinna attempted to obtain the power for the Marian party by incorporating the new Italian citizens among the thirty-five tribes. Octavius offered the most vehement resistance, and, in the contentions which ensued, he displayed all amount of eloquence for which previously credit had not been given him. (Cic. Brut. 47.) But from words the two parties soon came to blows. A dreadful conflict took place in the forum, and Cinna was driven out of the ci
Octavius 18. Cn. Octavius Rufus, quaestor, B. C. 107, was sent into Africa with pay for the army of Marius, and returned to Rome, accompanied by the ambassadors, whom Bocchus sent to the senate. (Sal. Jug. 104.) The cognomen in most of the MSS. of Sallust is Ruso, for which, however, we ought probably to read Rufus, as the former cognomen is unknown in the Octavia gens. From the fact that this Cn. Octavius filled the office of quaestor, it is not impossible that he may be the same Cn. Octavius, who was consul B. C. 87. [See above, No. 6.]
ch they accordingly did shortly afterwards. He affected great horror of the crime, but took no steps to bring the perpetrators to justice; and Sulla, who was on the point of starting for the East, was obliged to overlook the murder. Next year, B. C. 87, the Marian party obtained the upper hand. L. Cinna, who had been driven out of the city by his colleague Cn. Octavius, had collected a formidable army, and being joined by Marius, advanced against Rome. The aristocracy summoned Pompeius Strabo longer a neutral part. Cinna attempted to remove him by assassination, but he was saved by the energy and prudence of his son, who also quelled a dangerous mutiny among the soldiers. Shortly after these events and in the course of the same year, B. C. 87, Strabo was killed by lightning. His avarice and cruelty had made him hated by the soldiers to such a degree, that they tore his corpse from the bier and dragged it through the streets. Cicero describes him (Brut. 47) as "worthy of hatred on acc
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Pompeius Magnus or Pompeius the Great or Cn. Pompeius (search)
he consulship of Atilirus Serranus and Servilius Caepio. He was consequently a few months younger than Cicero, who was born on the 3d of January in this year, and six years older than Caesar. He had scarcely left school before he was summoned to serve under his father in the Social war. He fought under him in B. C. 89 against the Italians, when he was only seventeen years of age, and continued with him till his death two years afterwards. He was present at the battle of the Colline Gate, in B. C. 87, and, as has been already related, he saved the life of his father, and quelled an insurrection of the soldiers by his courage and activity. The death of his father soon after this event left Pompey his own master at the age of nineteen. The aristocratical party were no longer able to offer any opposition to Marius and Cinna, who accordingly entered Rome shortly afterwards, and took a bloody revenge on their opponents. Pompey's house was plundered ; and he did not venture to appear in publi
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Ptolemaeus Soter (search)
to the state of ruin in which it has ever since remained (Paus. 1.9.3). With this exception the eight years of the second reign of Ptolemy Lathyrus appear to have been a period of internal tranquillity, while his prudent policy regained for him in some degree that consideration abroad which Egypt had nearly lost. We find the Athenians, in return for some benefits which he had conferred upon them, erecting statues to him and his daughter Berenice (Paus. l.c.); and during the Mithridatic war, B. C. 87, Lucullus was sent by Sulla to request from him the assistance of the Egyptian fleet. But Lathyrus was desirous to remain neuter during that contest, and, while he received Lucullus with every demonstration of honour he declined to furnish the required assistance. (Plut. Luc. 2, 3.) The character of Lathyrus appears to have been mild and amiable, even to a degree bordering upon weakness: but it shows in a favourable light when contrasted with those of his mother and brother, and he appear
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