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Rebellion Record: a Diary of American Events: Documents and Narratives, Volume 5. (ed. Frank Moore) 2 2 Browse Search
Maj. Jed. Hotchkiss, Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 3, Virginia (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 2 2 Browse Search
General Joseph E. Johnston, Narrative of Military Operations During the Civil War 2 2 Browse Search
The Daily Dispatch: July 29, 1861., [Electronic resource] 2 2 Browse Search
Hon. J. L. M. Curry , LL.D., William Robertson Garrett , A. M. , Ph.D., Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 1.1, Legal Justification of the South in secession, The South as a factor in the territorial expansion of the United States (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 2 2 Browse Search
Comte de Paris, History of the Civil War in America. Vol. 2. (ed. Henry Coppee , LL.D.) 2 2 Browse Search
Elias Nason, McClellan's Own Story: the war for the union, the soldiers who fought it, the civilians who directed it, and his relations to them. 2 2 Browse Search
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 26. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones) 2 2 Browse Search
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 10. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones) 2 2 Browse Search
Joseph T. Derry , A. M. , Author of School History of the United States; Story of the Confederate War, etc., Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 6, Georgia (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 2 2 Browse Search
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plined. A few regular companies and batteries made a leaven for the mass, and among those Federal organizations that most distinguished themselves were Ricketts' and Griffin's regular field-batteries. About half-past 2 in the afternoon of July 21, 1861, these were ordered forward to the top of the Henry hill, where the battle of Bull Run was raging hottest. They went with a feeling that the regiments ordered to support them were unreliable. For a time there was a lull in the battle. But ath sped from behind fences, bushes, hedges, and knolls. The battery fought with desperate The Henry house — after Bull Run: the artillery center of the first Civil War battle Thus stood the Henry house after the battle of Bull Run, on July 21, 1861. The building is no longer habitable — though the white plaster remaining shows that the destroying cannonade had not brought fire in its train. At first not in the direct line of fire, the little home suddenly became the center of the floo
d to it equally with myself. The demand was refused, and Fort Pickens never passed into the hands of the Confederates. The battery seen in this photograph was at Warrington, nearly opposite Fort Pickens. It commanded the entrance to the harbor. General Pendleton, who was a graduate of West Point in the class of 1830, was chief of artillery in Lee's army of Northern Virginia. He entered the war as captain in the artillery corps July 19, 1861, and became colonel and chief of artillery July 21, 1861. The mortar in this photograph is an old style piece dating from before the Mexican war. The new Confederate soldiers had at times to content themselves with very old guns. University of Virginia, where out of six hundred and four students in 1861 over one-half entered the Confederate service. Besides these organizations, was the Washington Artillery, of Charleston, South Carolina, organized in 1784; the Marion Artillery, of the same place; Delaware Kemper's Artillery, of Alexan
James Barnes, author of David G. Farragut, Naval Actions of 1812, Yank ee Ships and Yankee Sailors, Commodore Bainbridge , The Blockaders, and other naval and historical works, The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Volume 6: The Navy. (ed. Francis Trevelyan Miller), The organization of the Federal Navy (search)
d five privates in the United States Marine Corps shows the quality of the men who made up that highly important branch of the service. The United States Marine Corps was established by Act of Congress on July 11, 1798, as an addition to the present military establishment. On June 30, 1834, another Act for its better organization was passed. The marines were early in the war, not only in minor engagements along the coast incidental to the blockade, but in the first battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, where they cooperated with the regular military forces. The marines proved especially useful in the fighting along the Western rivers. When Admiral D. D. Porter took command of the Mississippi squadron, he applied for a force of marines to be carried in suitable vessels accompanying the fleet of gunboats so that the forces could be landed at various points. It was necessary to have trained soldiers at hand to pursue and annihilate these irresponsible raiders, who pillaged on the prop
Men of New York's fighting sixty-ninth, prisoners in Charleston The prisoners shown in this photograph are members of Colonel Michael Corcoran's Irish Regiment, the Sixty-ninth New York. They were captured at the first battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861. Colonel Corcoran (shown on a previous page) and his men were taken first to Richmond, and then in September to Castle Pinckney in Charleston Harbor. These prisoners have light-heartedly decorated their casemate with a sign reading: Musical ners were taken by General George B. McClellan at Rich Mountain, Virginia, in July, and all were paroled, except two who had previously served in the United States army. These the War Department ordered General McClellan to retain. Then, on July 21, 1861, came the battle of Bull Run, or Manassas, when the Confederates took more than a thousand prisoners. The war was on in earnest. The Federal government was inclined to refuse to recognize the validity of the Texas paroles, and was only pre
the buildings were used as prisons and hospitals. The plan was almost invariable. They were rectangular, two or three stories in height, and entirely without ornament. The floors Where the first Federal prisoners were sent—young South Carolinians at drill Again the reader penetrates inside the Confederate lines in war-time, gazing here at the grim prison barriers of Castle Pinckney, in Charleston Harbor, where some of the Union prisoners captured at the first battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, had been sent. The thick stone walls frown down upon the boys of the Charleston Zouave Cadets, assigned to guard these prisoners. Here they are drilling within the prison under the command of Lieutenants E. John White (in front at the right) and B. M. Walpole, just behind him. The cadet kneeling upon the extreme right is Sergeant (later Captain) Joseph F. Burke. The responsibility was a heavy one, but the Cadets were a well-drilled body of youngsters and proved quite equal to their d
men devised games, laying out checker-or chess-boards on pieces of plank of which they somehow managed to get possession. These boards were never idle, South Carolinians and New Yorkers: a meeting that was as agreeable as possible The two facing sentries formally parleying upon the parapet belong to the Charleston Zouave Cadets, under Captain C. E. Chichester. Below them, past the flag fluttering to the left of the picture, are the prisoners taken at the first battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, and placed under their care in Castle Pinckney. The meeting was as agreeable as possible under the circumstances, to all parties concerned. The prisoners, chiefly from New York regiments, behaved themselves like gentlemen and kept their quarters clean. The Cadets treated them as such, and picked up a few useful hints, such as the method of softening hard-tack to make it more edible. The Cadets were well drilled and kept strict discipline. and many a rural champion owes his title to
o, nevertheless, were struggling to make the best of hard conditions. Others confined in the same prison at the same time, paint them as willing instruments of a policy cunningly devised to break the spirit and sap the strength of their charges. We are told that prisoners were starved, and that they were well fed; that they were well clothed and that they were naked; The bright side of prison life—1861 These are some of the Union prisoners taken at the first battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, at Castle Pinckney, in Charleston Harbor, where they were placed in charge of the Charleston Zouave Cadets under Captain C. E. Chichester. They received the same rations as their guardians, and were good-enough soldiers to make themselves quite comfortable. Later in the war, when rations grew short in all the Southern armies, prisoners suffered along with the rest. During 1863 the number of prisoners on both sides had increased so largely that their care began to be a serious matter—
king with me my hospital steward, a detail of ten men, and two wagons. Two of the first field-hospitals In such places as these the army surgeon worked, to the accompaniment of bursting shells which threatened to complete the havoc already begun, and destroy both the wounded soldiers and those who sought to relieve their agonies. The upper photograph shows Mrs. Spinner's house, between Centreville and the Stone Bridge, which was used as a hospital during the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861. Here the Honorable A. Ely, Member of Congress, and a large number of Federal troops were made prisoners by the Confederate cavalry. The Stone Church at Centreville, shown in the lower picture, had been used as a hospital only three days before, July 18, 1861, after the battle of Blackburn's Ford. The houses upon the field of battle, especially the first year, before the field-hospital system was perfected, were often utilized for army hospital purposes. Mrs. Spinners house in 18
king with me my hospital steward, a detail of ten men, and two wagons. Two of the first field-hospitals In such places as these the army surgeon worked, to the accompaniment of bursting shells which threatened to complete the havoc already begun, and destroy both the wounded soldiers and those who sought to relieve their agonies. The upper photograph shows Mrs. Spinner's house, between Centreville and the Stone Bridge, which was used as a hospital during the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861. Here the Honorable A. Ely, Member of Congress, and a large number of Federal troops were made prisoners by the Confederate cavalry. The Stone Church at Centreville, shown in the lower picture, had been used as a hospital only three days before, July 18, 1861, after the battle of Blackburn's Ford. The houses upon the field of battle, especially the first year, before the field-hospital system was perfected, were often utilized for army hospital purposes. Mrs. Spinners house in 18
him, had organized his great army as the autumn waned, and the livelong days were spent in the constant drill, drill that was absolutely needed to impart cohesion and discipline to this vast Fourth New Jersey regiment, 1861. This three-months regiment was formed at Trenton, N. J., in April, 1861, and arrived at Washington on May 6th. It was on duty at Meridian Hill until May 24th, when it took part in the occupation of Arlington Heights. It participated in the battle of Bull Run, July 21st, and ten days later was mustered out at the expiration of its term of service. New Jersey contributed three regi ments of cavalry, five batteries of light artillery, and forty-one regiments of infantry to the Union armies during the war. Officers of the fourth New Jersey regiment, 1861 The fourth New Jersey on the banks of the Potomac, 1861 array, mostly American bred, and hitherto unschooled in discipline of any kind. When McDowell marched his militiamen forward to attack Beaur
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