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Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK II, INTRODUCTION (search)
thout a supply of it. Therefore, while thinking that your design is commendable, I consider the site as not commendable; but I would have you stay with me, because I mean to make use of your services.” 4. From that time, Dinocrates did not leave the king, but followed him into Egypt. There Alexander, observing a harbour rendered safe by nature, an excellent centre for trade, cornfields throughout all Egypt, and the great usefulness of the mighty river Nile, ordered him to build the city of Alexandria, named after the king. This was how Dinocrates, recommended only by his good looks and dignified carriage, came to be so famous. But as for me, Emperor, nature has not given me stature, age has marred my face, and my strength is impaired by ill health. Therefore, since these advantages fail me, I shall win your approval, as I hope, by the help of my knowledge and my writings. 5. In my first book, I have said what I had to say about the functions of architecture and the scope of the art, as
Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK VII, INTRODUCTION (search)
influence of the great charms of literature, an excellent library at Pergamus to give pleasure to the public, Ptolemy also was aroused with no end of enthusiasm and emulation into exertions to make a similar provision with no less diligence at Alexandria. Having done so with the greatest care, he felt that this was not enough without providing for its increase and development, for which he sowed the seed. He established public contests in honour of the Muses and Apollo, and appointed prizes and theft, and after condemnation sent them off in disgrace; but he honoured Aristophanes with the most generous gifts, and put him in charge of the library. 8. Some years later, Zoilus, who took the surname of Homeromastix, came from Macedonia to Alexandria and read to the king his writings directed against the Iliad and Odyssey. Ptolemy, seeing the father of poets and captain of all literature abused in his absence, and his works, to which all the world looked up in admiration, disparaged by this
Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK VII, CHAPTER XI: BLUE. BURNT OCHRE (search)
CHAPTER XI: BLUE. BURNT OCHRE 1. METHODS of making blue were first discovered in Alexandria, and afterwards Vestorius set up the making of it at Puzzuoli. The method of obtaining it from the substances of which it has been found to consist, is strange enough. Sand and the flowers of natron are brayed together so finely that the product is like meal, and copper is grated by means of coarse files over the mixture, like sawdust, to form a conglomerate. Then it is made into balls by rolling it in the hands and thus bound together for drying. The dry balls are put in an earthern jar, and the jars in an oven. As soon as the copper and the sand grow hot and unite under the intensity of the fire, they mutually receive each other's sweat, relinquishing their peculiar qualities, and having lost their properties through the intensity of the fire, they are reduced to a blue colour. 2. Burnt ochre, which is very serviceable in stucco work, is made as follows. A clod of good yellow ochre is heate
Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK IX, CHAPTER I: THE ZODIAC AND THE PLANETS (search)
CHAPTER I: THE ZODIAC AND THE PLANETS 1. IT is due to the divine intelligence and is a very great wonder to all who reflect upon it, that the shadow of a gnomon at the equinox is of one length in Athens, of another in Alexandria, of another in Rome, and not the same at Piacenza, or at other places in the world. Hence drawings for dials are very different from one another, corresponding to differences of situation. This is because the length of the shadow at the equinox is used in constructing the figure of the analemma, in accordance with which the hours are marked to conform to the situation and the shadow of the gnomon. The analemma is a basis for calculation deduced from the course of the sun, and found by observation of the shadow as it increases until the winter solstice. By means of this, through architectural principles and the employment of the compasses, we find out the operation of the sun in the universe. 2. The word “universe” means the general assemblage of all nature, an
Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK IX, CHAPTER VII: THE ANALEMMA AND ITS APPLICATIONS (search)
ANALEMMA AND ITS APPLICATIONS 1. IN distinction from the subjects first mentioned, we must ourselves explain the principles which govern the shortening and lengthening of the day. When the sun is at the equinoxes, that is, passing through Aries or Libra, he makes the gnomon cast a shadow equal to eight ninths of its own length, in the latitude of Rome. In Athens, the shadow is equal to three fourths of the length of the gnomon; at Rhodes to five sevenths; at Tarentum, to nine elevenths; at Alexandria, to three fifths; and so at other places it is found that the shadows of equinoctial gnomons are naturally different from one another. 2. Hence, wherever a sundial is to be constructed, we must take the equinoctial shadow of the place. If it is found to be, as in Rome, equal to eight ninths of the gnomon, let a line be drawn on a plane surface, and in the middle thereof erect a perpendicular, plumb to the line, which perpendicular is called the gnomon. Then,from the line in the plane, let
Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK IX, CHAPTER VIII: SUNDIALS AND WATER CLOCKS (search)
o find their baseplates, can easily do so from the books of these writers, provided only he understands the figure of the analemma. 2. Methods of making water clocks have been investigated by the same writers, and first of all by Ctesibius the Alexandrian, who also discovered the natural pressure of the air and pneumatic principles. It is worth while for students to know how these discoveries came about. Ctesibius, born at Alexandria, was the son of a barber. Preeminent for natural ability and Alexandria, was the son of a barber. Preeminent for natural ability and great industry, he is said to have amused himself with ingenious devices. For example, wishing to hang a mirror in his father's shop in such a way that, on being lowered and raised again, its weight should be raised by means of a concealed cord, he employed the following mechanical contrivance. 3. Under the roof-beam he fixed a wooden channel in which he arranged a block of pulleys. He carried the cord along the channel to the corner, where he set up some small piping. Into this a leaden ball,
P. Ovidius Naso, Metamorphoses (ed. Arthur Golding), Book 9, line 764 (search)
day prolongd The tyme, oft feyning siknesse, oft pretending shee had seene Ill tokens of successe. At length all shifts consumed beene. The wedding day so oft delayd was now at hand. The day Before it, taking from her head the kercheef quyght away, And from her daughters head likewyse, with scattred heare she layd Her handes upon the Altar, and with humble voyce thus prayd: O Isis, who doost haunt the towne of Paretonie, and The feeldes by Maraeotis lake, and Pharos which dooth stand By Alexandria, and the Nyle divided into seven Great channels, comfort thou my feare, and send mee help from heaven, Thyself, O Goddesse, even thyself, and theis thy relikes I Did once behold and knew them all: as well thy company As eke thy sounding rattles, and thy cressets burning by, And myndfully I marked what commaundement thou didst give. That I escape unpunished, that this same wench dooth live, Thy counsell and thy hest it is. Have mercy now on twayne, And help us. With that word
C. Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Civil War (ed. William Duncan), CAESAR'S COMMENTARIES of THE CIVIL WAR. , chapter 4 (search)
two of mercenaries. His cavalry amounted to seven thousand; six hundred of which came from Galatia, under Dejotarus; five hundred from Cappadocia, under Ariobarzanes; and the like number had been sent him out of Thrace, by Cotus, with his son Sadalis at their head. Two hundred were from Macedonia, commanded by Bascipolis, an officer of great distinction; five hundred from Alexandria, consisting of Gauls and Germans, left there by A. Gabinius, to serve as a guard to king Ptolemy; and now brought over by young Pompey in his fleet, together with eight hundred of his own domestics. Tarcundarius Castor and Donilaus furnished three hundred Gallograecians: the first of these came himself in person; the latter sent his son. Two hundred, most of them archers,
C. Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Civil War (ed. William Duncan), CAESAR'S COMMENTARIES of THE CIVIL WAR. , chapter 103 (search)
whom, some months before, by the assistance of his friends, he had expelled the kingdom, and was then encamped not far distant from her. Pompey sent to demand his protection, and a safe retreat in Alexandria, in consideration of the friendship that had subsisted between him and his father. The messengers, after discharging their commission, began to converse freely with the king's after discharging their commission, began to converse freely with the king's troops, exhorting them to assist Pompey and not despise him in his adverse fortune. Among these troops were many of Pompey's old soldiers, whom Gabinius, having draughted out of the Syrian army, had carried to Alexandria, and, upon the conclusion of the war, left there with the young king's father.
C. Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Civil War (ed. William Duncan), CAESAR'S COMMENTARIES of THE CIVIL WAR. , chapter 104 (search)
The king's ministers, who had the care of the government during his minority, being informed of this, either out of fear, as they afterwards pretended, lest Pompey should debauch the army, and thereby render himself master of Alexandria and Egypt; or despising his low condition (as friends, in bad fortune, often turn enemies), spoke favourably to the deputies in public, and invited Pompey to court; but privately despatched Achillas, captain of the king's guards, a man of singular boldness, and to murder him. They accosted him with an air of frankness, especially Septimius, who had served under him as a centurion in the war with the pirates; and inviting him into the boat, treacherously slew him. L. Lentulus was likewise seized by the king's co
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