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Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 4., John Morgan in 1864. (search)
the garrison, on the 11th. That afternoon, General Hobson, coming to the relief of the town, approached with 1500 cavalry. He was immediately attacked in front by Giltner, while Morgan, assailing him in the rear with Cassell's battalion, compelled his surrender. On the 12th Morgan was attacked at Cynthiana by Burbridge at the head of 5200 men. Morgan's effective strength was now reduced, by losses in battle and details to guard prisoners and destroy railroad track and bridges, to less than 1300, and his ammunition was nearly exhausted. After some hours of hard fighting he was defeated and forced to retreat, with a loss of fully one half of his remaining command in killed, wounded, and prisoners. He destroyed all of his captured stores and paroled the prisoners he had taken, and marching instantly back to Virginia, via Flemings-burg and West Liberty, and thence through the mountains, reached Abingdon, Va., June 20th. Disastrous as this raid was, in some respects, it accomplished i
oined with artillery, but it can likewise be provided with the three arms. The army corps is always composed of the three arms, and forms in itself a small army. The battalion of infantry, squadron of cavalry, and battery of artillery form what is called a tactical unit. In speaking of the force of an army, it is generally given by the number of battalions, squadrons, or batteries. Their strength varies in the different armies. In the European armies, a battalion amounts to from 600 to 1300 men; squadrons, from 80 to 200 horses; and batteries, from 4 to 12 guns. Too strong a battalion is too difficult to move, and too small a one too soon used up; it is the same with squadrons; very strong batteries are subject to be too often divided. For infantry, battalions of 800 to 1000 men; for cavalry, squadrons from 100 to 150 horses; for artillery, batteries from 6 to 8 guns, are, however, the numbers generally used. Regiments of infantry are composed of 2 to 4 battalions. Regiments
d in each brigade many instances of gallant conduct were exhibited by regiments and individuals, but generally the troops faltered in the charge, when they were much exposed and within easy range of the enemy's musketry, and when they could do but little damage to the enemy behind his works, instead of moving directly and promptly forward against the temporary and informidable works in their front. The attack was a feeble one, and a failure, with a loss to my corps of about thirteen hundred (1300) men in killed and wounded. The enemy being behind works, and apparently no impression having been made upon him by the attack on my left, where his line was supposed to be weakest, and Brigadier General Ross commanding a cavalry brigade on my immediate right, having reported the enemy moving to my right, I was induced not to renew the attack. During the night of the 31st, about 1 p. m., I received an order from Lieutenant General Hardee to march at once to Atlanta. My corps was immediatel
Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, chapter 7 (search)
of Franklin's corps with two batteries, and French's and Meagher's brigades of Sumner's corps, as reenforcements, — say about 14,000 men. Porter himself was, perhaps, the hardest opponent to fight in the Federal army. No one in it knew better how to occupy and prepare his ground for defence, or was more diligent to do it; and in his corps were concentrated all of the regular regiments of the old Federal army. To attack such a position was no easy proposition, and Lee's force, checked and 1300 weakened by the ill-advised affair at Mechanicsville, had no margin to spare over the size of its task. Indeed, had McClellan reenforced Porter as he should have done, with a whole corps, he might have won a great victory. But he allowed himself to be imposed upon by the demonstrations made by Magruder and Huger, under orders from Lee, and neither attacked with his left, nor strengthened his right sufficiently. He weakly left the question of sending reenforcements to his four corps command
n guns, the band playing the national airs. At 3 o'clock P. M. the action was opened by a shot from Fort Moultrie. At three minutes past 3 P. M., the leading vessel having approached to within about 1400 yards of the fort, she fired two shots simultaneously—one a 15-inch shrapnel, which burst; both passed over the fort. The batteries were opened upon her two minutes later, the firing being by battery. The action now became more general; and the four leading monitors taking position from 1300 to 1400 yards distant, the fire was changed from fire by battery to fire by piece, as being more accurate. The fire by battery was again resumed as occasion offered. The Ironsides did not approach nearer than 1700 yards. The whole fire of the batteries engaged was concentrated on the Passaic for thirty minutes, when she withdrew from the engagement, apparently injured. The other ships, each in turn, received our attention. The fire of both Fort Moultrie and this fort being now directed ag
ounds, and was considered as remarkably large at that time. During the thirteenth century much larger bells began to be cast. The Jacqueline, at Paris, cast in 1300, weighed 15,000 pounds; one cast at Paris in 1472 weighed 15,000 pounds; and the bell of Rouen, cast in 1501, weighed over 36,000 pounds. One of the pieces in mles to the north end, lighting the buildings at the Middlesex side of the river. Between fire and water the loss of life was dreadful. The bridge was restored in 1300; again partially burned in 1471, 1632, and 1725. The houses were pulled down in 1756. At what time stone arches were substituted for wooden spans does not appear whose business is upon the waters, remained long after the other arches had been swept away by the storms of centuries. Benezet's tomb was in the crypt. About 1300, Issim, the Moorish king of Granada, erected a fine bridge at Cordova, across the Guadalquiver. Perronet mentions a stone bridge of three arches, one of which h
allow (sebacea). Alfred the Great used a graduated wax candle as a time-keeper, and placed it in a lantern to equalize its consumption by preventing flaring. Splinters of wood saturated with animal fat were used in England by the poor, A. D. 1300. The pith of swamp-rush (Juncus effusus) was subsequently used for a wick, and answered the purpose tolerably, though it conducted the grease slowly, gave a very moderate light, and was easily extinguished by drafts. It is still used there, and they died by poison, both of them. To follow up the recital: — A. D. 1288, a clock was placed in the old palace yard, London, and remained till the reign of Queen Elizabeth. A. D. 1292, a clock was placed in Canterbury Cathedral. A. D. 1300, Dante refers to a clock which struck the hours. Chaucer refers to the horologe. No certain mention is made, up to this time, of the means of regulating the speed of the machine, and that the pendulum had not been adopted to any extent, is cer
ingness of it at pleasure, by an oyled paper. This I bought of him, giveing him a crowne for it; and so, well satisfied, he went away. — Ibid., Oct. 5, 1664. Aquatint engraving invented by St. Non of France, 1662. Engraving in steel introduced into England by Perkins of Philadelphia, 1819. The earliest application of the wood-engraver's art in Europe was in cutting blocks for playingcards. The French writers ascribe it to the time of Charles V., but the Germans show cards of the date 1300. The Italians again claim that it originated in Ravenna, about 1285. An Italian pamphlet of the year 1299 speaks of cards as a gambling game, but these may have been drawn by the pen and colored by hand. In the year 1441 the Venetian government forbade the importation of stamped playing-cards as being injurious to their handicraft manufacture. Ugo di Carpi introduced the method of printing in colors or tints by separate successive blocks. Engraving on wood assumed the character of an art
Adsiger in a Latin essay in 1269, in which the south pole is said to vary a little to the west; and by Raymond Lully of Majorca, in his Fenix de las Maravillas del Orbe, published in 1286. A passage in the Spanish Leyes de las Partidas of the middle of the thirteenth century runs as follows: The needle which guides the mariner in the dark night, and shows him how to direct his course both in good and bad weather, is the intermediary between the loadstone and the North Star. Dante, about 1300, refers to the needle which points to the star. Marco Polo, the great traveler, was in the service of Kublai Khan, the conqueror of China, from 1274 to 1291, and was concerned in the introduction of the compass from China to Europe direct. It had previously arrived by the good old channel, India and Arabia; but Marco Polo did not know that, and his services can hardly be exaggerated. The Arabs sailed by the compass during the Khalifate of Cordova, which lasted till A. D. 1237, when it
ville to Louis X. of France, dated 1315, and written on paper made from rags, is yet extant. After this period the notices of paper and of paper-making become frequent. Linen paper is found in documents of 1241 (edict of Emperor Fred. II.) and 1300. The Arabian physician Abdollatiph, who visited Egypt in 1200, says that the mummy-cloths (linen) were habitually used to make wrapping-paper for the shop-keepers. The linen paper of the thirteenth century had the waterlines and water-mark. Oneced blockprinting into Europe, and wood-engraving and printing had long been in use in the time of Charles V., when playing-cards were thus made. The printing from blocks is said to have been practiced at Ravenna in 1289, and among the Germans in 1300. In 1441 it had attained the dignity of special legislation; the Venetian card-makers, taking their impressions by means of a burnisher, obtained protection against the introduction of stamped cards. The most important of the block-books was
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