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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hulsemann letter, the. (search)
Hulsemann letter, the. During the Hungarian revolution President Taylor sent an agent to Hungary for the purpose of obtaining official information. The agent's report was not received until after the revolution had been crushed, but the Austrian charge at Washington, D. C., Mr. Hulsemann, in a highly offensive letter, complained of the action of the United States government in sending this representative. Daniel Webster, in his reply, Dec. 21, 1850, administered a very sharp rebuke, claiming the rights of the United States to recognize any de facto revolutionary government and to seek information in all proper ways in order to guide its action. The intense enthusiasm with which Kossuth was greeted in the United States led Mr. Hulsemann to return to Austria.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Immigration. (search)
opposed to the importation of Asiatic laborers in competition with American labor, and favor a more rigid enforcement of the laws relating thereto. Immigration statistics. During the period 1789-1820, when no thorough oversight was exercised, it is estimated that the number of immigrants into the United States aggregated 250,000; and during the period 1820-1900 the aggregate was 19,765,155. The nationality of immigrants in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1900, was as follows: Austria-Hungary, 114,847; German Empire, 18,507; Italy, including Sicily and Sardinia, 100,135; Norway, 9,575; Sweden, 18,650; Rumania, 6,459; Russian Empire and Finland, 90,787; England, 9,951; Ireland, 35,730; Scotland, 1,792; Wales, 764; Japan, 12,635; Turkey in Asia, 3,962; West Indies, 4,656; all other countries, 20,122; total, 448,572. High-water mark was reached in 1882, when the immigrants numbered 788,992. In 1892 the steady decline was checked, with a total of 623,084. The lowest number of a
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Iron and steel. (search)
ps of operating companies aggregated $1,455,696,000. The steel industry also showed the United States to be at the head of all other countries, with a production of almost 40 per cent. of the world's steel output. It was estimated, for the year 1899, that the total steel output of the world was 26,841,755 long tons, divided among the producing countries as follows: United States, 10,702,209 tons; Germany, 6,290,434; Great Britain, 4,933,010; France, 1,529,182; Belgium, 729,920; Austria-Hungary, 950,000; Russia, 1,250,000; Sweden, 257,000; Italy, 80,000; and Spain, 120,000. The output in 1899, in the United States, of rolled steel was 10,357,397 tons, and in 1900 over 11,000,000 tons. In the iron and steel trade with foreign countries, in the twenty years preceding 1900, the position of the United States was exactly reversed; and within the last five years of that period the United States changed from an importing to an exporting country. In 1880 five times as much in value
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Kossuth, Lajos (Louis) 1802- (search)
Kossuth, Lajos (Louis) 1802- Patriot; born in Monok, Hungary, April 27, 1802; was in the Hungarian Diet in 1832-36; imprisoned for politinsurrection against Austria; on April 14, 1849, the Diet declared Hungary independent, and appointed Kossuth governor; on Aug. 11 following theme was a plea for sympathy and substantial aid for his country, Hungary. He wished to obtain the acknowledgment of the claims of Hungary Hungary to independence, and the interference of the United States and Great Britain, jointly, in behalf of the principle of non-intervention, which ungarian independence, Hungarian control of her own destinies, and Hungary as a distinct nationality among the nations of Europe. After Kossitions for the United States to lend material aid to the people of Hungary, struggling for national independence; but the final determinationtes should not change its uniform policy of neutrality in favor of Hungary. The cordial reception of Kossuth everywhere, and the magnetic po
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Leland, Charles Godfrey 1824- (search)
admitted to the bar, and practised in Philadelphia till 1853. He then entered journalism, and was at different times an editor on the New York Times; Philadelphia Evening bulletin; Vanity fair; Philadelphia Press; Knickerbocker magazine; and Continental magazine. During 1869-80 he lived in London. Returning to the United States, he was the first to establish industrial education, based on the minor arts, as a branch of public school teaching. Later his system spread to England, Austria-Hungary, and other countries. He discovered the Shelta language, which was spoken by the Celtic tinkers, and was the famous lost language of the Irish bards, and his discovery was verified by Kuno Meyer, from manuscripts 1,000 years old. His publications include Hans Breitnann's ballads; France, Alsace, and Lorraine; Life of Abraham Lincoln; Industrial work in schools (United States Bureau of Education); One hundred profitable Arts; Etruscan-Roman remains; Algonquian legends; and many other works.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Peace conference, universal (search)
elaborated in 1874 by the conference of Brussels, which has remained unratified to the present day. 8. To accept in principle the employment of good offices, of mediation and facultative arbitration in cases lending themselves thereto, with the object of preventing armed conflicts between nations; to come to an understanding with respect to the mode of applying these good offices, and to establish a uniform practice in using them. The following governments were represented: Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Bulgaria, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Montenegro, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, Rumania, Russia, Servia, Siam, Spain, Sweden and Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States of America. The United States were represented by the lion. Andrew D. White, ambassador to Berlin; the Hon. Seth Low, president of Columbia University; the Hon. Stanford Newel, minister to The Hague; Capt. Alfred T. Mahan, U. S. N.; C
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Pulitzer, Joseph 1847- (search)
Pulitzer, Joseph 1847- Journalist; born in Buda-Pesth, Hungary, April 10, 1847; came to the United States in 1864, and enlisted in the National army; became reporter, subsequently proprietor, of Westliche post, St. Louis; proprietor of the St. Louis Dispatch and Evening post in 1878; proprietor of the New York World in 1883. He was a member of the State legislature of Missouri in 1869; of the State Constitutional Convention in 1874; and of Congress from New York City in 1885-87. In 1893 he gave Columbia University $100,000.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Smith, John 1579-1632 (search)
Smith, John 1579-1632 Settler; born in Willoughby, Lincolnshire, England, in January, 1579. From early youth he was a soldier, and for four years he was in wars in the Netherlands. Returning home, he soon went abroad again to fight the Turks, distinguishing himself in Hungary and Transylvania, for which service Sigismond Bathori ennobled him and gave him a pension. Serving under an Austrian general in besieging a Turkish fortress, he performed a wonderful exploit. One of the Turkish generals sent a message to the Austrian camp, saying, I challenge any captain of the besieging army to combat. Smith was chosen by lot to accept it. They fought in the presence of a multitude on the ramparts. Smith cut off his antagonist's head. A second appeared and suffered the same fate, and then a third, whose head soon rolled in the dust. The combat ended, and when Smith was ennobled he had upon his coat of arms, in two quarterings of his shield, three Turks' heads, with a chevron between
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Tesla, Nicola 1857- (search)
Tesla, Nicola 1857- Electrician; born in Smiljan, Croatia, Austria-Hungary, in 1857; graduated at the Polytechnic School in Gratz; later studied philosophy and languages at Prague and Budapest; came to the United States and was employed in the Edison works; became electrician of the Tesla Electric Light Company, and established the Tesla Laboratory in New York for independent electrical research. He invented the rotary magnetic field embodied in the apparatus used in the transmission of power from Niagara Falls; new forms of dynamos, transformers, induction coils, condensers, arc and incandescent lamps, and the oscillator combining steam-engine and dynamo, etc.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Tower, Charlemagne 1848- (search)
Tower, Charlemagne 1848- Diplomatist; born in Philadelphia, Pa., April 17, 1848; graduated at Harvard College in 1872; admitted to the bar in 1878; president of the Duluth and Iron Range Railroad in 1882-87; United States minister to Austria-Hungary in 1897-99, and was appointed United States ambassador to Russia in the latter year. He is the author of The Marquis de La Fayette in the American Revolution (2 volumes).
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