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Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, Chapter 23: the fall of 1864 (search)
ly (excluding losses from sickness) as given by their chief medical officer, were 65,000. Corroborative data from various sources confirm the figure. Losses of the Russians have not been published. Even in the recent conflict between Russia and Japan, where the armies were of immense size and the weapons of peculiar power, one is almost amazed after reading the popular accounts to find the killed and wounded among the Japanese in the siege of Port Arthur largely exceeded by those of Grant in his last compaign. Bravery in battle is the religion of Japan, and the whole nation is a religious unit. It is encouraging to realize that the loyalty to his flag and country of the Anglo-Saxon has shown itself capable of enduring equal tests of devotion. It would be strange indeed if in critically reviewing the details of Lee's rapidly conducted campaigns we found no instances of grave errors of judgment when brought to the test of being viewed in retrospect. We do find them, and have n
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Abbot, Joel, 1793-1855 (search)
born in Westford, Mass., Jan. 18, 1793; entered the navy as midshipman at the beginning of the War of 1812: served first on the frigate President, and next on Lake Champlain with Commodore Macdonough, who when he asked Abbot if he were ready to die for his country received the reply: Certainly, sir; that is what I came into the service for. He was then ordered to enter the British lines as a spy and destroy a number of spars which had been stored at Sorel. For his success in this dangerous exploit and for his bravery in the engagement at Cumberland Head on Sept. 11, 1814, he received a sword of honor from Congress and was commissioned a lieutenant. He was given charge of the pirate ship Mariana in 1818; promoted commander in 1838; and in the following year was given command of the Boston navy-yard. During Commodore Perry's expedition to Japan in 1852 Abbot commanded the Macedonian, and later was appointed flag-officer of the squadron. He died in Hong-Kong, China, Dec. 14, 1855.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Abbott, Lyman, 1835- (search)
on is offered us. The great amorphous, ill-organized empire of China is dropping to pieces; Germany, France, England, and Japan, are all seeking ports of entry through which to push, by commercial enterprises, the products of their industry upon people hitherto so little civilized as to want but little. In this competition between foreign nations, England and Japan have stood, apparently alone, for a free and untrammelled commerce. If the official statements in Parliament may be trusted, Eng been disinclined to grant. It is impossible that there is no need for us to join formally in a commercial alliance with Japan and Great Britain to insist upon this principle of untrammelled commerce: but if we need not do so, it is only because thld gradually draw into itself other peoples of like minds though of foreign race, such as, in the far East, the people of Japan. It would create a new confederation based on principles and ideas, not on tradition, and bounded by the possibilities o
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Arbitration, international Court of, (search)
er of the Privy Council, Q. C. Professor John Westlake, Ll.D., Q. C. Italy. His Excellency Count Constantin Nigra, Senator of the Kingdom, Ambassador at Vienna. His Excellency Commander Jean Baptiste Pagano Guarnaschelli, Senator of the Kingdom, First President of the Court of Cassation at Rome. His Excellency Count Tornielli Brusati di Vergano, Senator of the Kingdom, Ambassador to Paris. Commander Joseph Zanardelli. Attorney at Law, Deputy to the National Parliament. Japan. Mr. I. Motono, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Brussels. Mr. H. Willard Denison, Law Officer of the Minister for Foreign Affairs at Tokio. Netherlands. Mr. T. M. C. Asser, Ll.D., member of the Council of State, ex-Professor of the University of Amsterdam. Mr. F. B. Coninck Liefsting, Ll.D., President of the Court of Cassation. Jonkheer A. F. de Savornin Lohman, Ll.D., ex-Minister of the Interior, ex-Professor of the Free University of Amsterdam, member
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Arctic exploration. (search)
years efforts have been made by European navigators to discover a passage for vessels through the Arctic seas to India. The stories of Marco Polo of the magnificent countries in Eastern Asia and adjacent islands — Cathay and Zipangi, China and Japan--stimulated desires to accomplish such a passage. The Cabots [John Cabot; Sebastian Cabot (q. v.)] went in the direction of the pole, northwestward, at or near the close of the fifteenth century, and penetrated as far north as 67° 30′, or half-wcontinent and of Asia, into the Pacific Ocean, was first accomplished in the summer of 1879, by Professor Nordenskjold, an accomplished Swedish explorer, in the steamship Vega. She passed through Bering Strait into the Pacific Ocean, and reached Japan in the first week in September. Thus the great problem has been solved. the Jeannette, Lieutenant De Long, an American exploring vessel, was lost on the coast of Siberia, in 1881. The most important of the recent expeditions into Arctic legi
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bering sea. (search)
it the claim to arbitration In July, 1896, Judge G. E. King, of Canada, and Judge W. E. Putnam, of the United States, were chosen commissioners to settle the matter. On Jan. 14, 1898. President McKinley submitted to Congress the report and awards of the commission, the last aggregating $473,151 in favor of Great Britain, and on June 14 Congress appropriated that amount. In the mean time (June, 189)6) President Cleveland appointed a commission to make an exhaustive study of the fur-seal question, and on its report (1897) president McKinley appointed a new commission to devise protection for the seals. Then efforts were made to induce Great Britain to consent to an international conference, but Canada objected to the representation of Russia and Japan, whom the United States had invited, and on this objection Great Britain declined. Subsequently the United States invited all interested nations to a conference separately. See Anglo-American commission. Bering sea arbitratio
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Biddle, James, 1783-1848 (search)
elphia, Pa., Feb. 29, 1783; was edueated at the University of Pennsylvania, and entered the navy, as midshipman, Feb. 12, 1800. He was wrecked in the frigate Philadelphia, off Tripoli, in October, 1803, and was a prisoner nineteen months. As first lieutenant of the Wasp, he led the boarders in the action with the Frolic, Oct. 18, 1812. Captured by the Poitiers. he was exchanged in March, 1813; and was made master commander in charge of a flotilla of gunboats in the Delaware River soon afterwards. In command of the Hornet he captured the Penguin. March 23, 1813. For this victory Congress voted him a gold medal. Made captain in February, 1815, he held important commands in different parts of the world. While in command of a squadron in the Mediterranean (1830-32), he was given a commission to negotiate a commercial treaty with the Turkish government. In 1845 he performed diplomatic service in China, and visited Japan. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 1, 1848. James Riddle.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Centennial Exhibition, (search)
The national government issued invitations to all foreign nations having diplomatic relations with the United States to participate in the exhibition by sending the products of their industries. There was a generous response, and thirty-three nations, besides the United States, were represented—namely, Argentine Republic, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chili, China, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Great Britain and Ireland, India and British colonies, Hawaiian Islands, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Liberia. Luxemburg Grand Duchy, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Orange Free State, Peru, Portugal, Russia, Santo Domingo, Spain and Spanish colonies, Siam, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunis, Turkey, and Venezuela. A Woman's executive committee was formed, composed of Philadelphians, who raised money sufficient among the women of the Union for the erection of a building for the exhibition exclusively of women's work—sculpture, painting, engraving, lithography, literature, telegraphy, needlework of a
the leader of the American contingent, was highly commended for his bravery and resourcefulness. On June 17, the Chinese forts at Taku opened fire upon the warships of the allied forces, and those of Germany, Russia, Great Britain, France, and Japan immediately returned the bombardment. The fortifications were finally captured at the point of the bayonet by soldiers landed at a point enabling them to assault in the rear. Over 100 Europeans were killed and wounded in this engagement; the Chourt emanating from the imperial palace. At the same time the Chinese government officially declared, by its representatives abroad, that it guaranteed the security of the legations. Third—On June 11 Mr. Sujyama, chancellor of the legation of Japan, while in the discharge of an official mission, was killed by regulars at the gates of the city. In Peking and in several provinces foreigners were murdered, tortured, or attacked by the Boxers and the regular troops, and such as escaped death o
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), China and the powers. (search)
rs had over 72 per cent. of the whole of the foreign trade with China in their hands; all the other powers combined having only 28 per cent. between them, of which Japan possesses the larger share. It is perfectly true that, upon examining these figures, there seems to be a great disproportion between 64 per cent. of trade possese competitors, has already out-distanced all rivals, and obtained 8 per cent. of the whole trade, as against 28 per cent. of all other nations combined (including Japan). Viewed in this light, it will be seen that the disproportion between the trade of Great Britain and the United States is less real than apparent. There are one ned with her possession of the chief coaling stations, is pre-eminently in a position to deal with the China question by war, if she so desired. Next to her comes Japan, with a fine fleet in close proximity to the scene of operations, and a capacity to land 200,000 troops in China at any moment. Apart from these two, the United S
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