years efforts have been made by European navigators to discover a passage for vessels through the Arctic seas to India.
The stories of Marco Polo of the magnificent countries in Eastern Asia and adjacent islands — Cathay and Zipangi, China and Japan--stimulated desires to accomplish such a passage.
The Cabots [John Cabot; Sebastian Cabot (q. v.)] went in the direction of the pole, northwestward, at or near the close of the fifteenth century, and penetrated as far north as 67° 30′, or half-wcontinent and of Asia, into the Pacific Ocean, was first accomplished in the summer of 1879, by Professor Nordenskjold, an accomplished Swedish explorer, in the steamship Vega.
She passed through Bering Strait into the Pacific Ocean, and reached Japan in the first week in September.
Thus the great problem has been solved.
the Jeannette, Lieutenant De Long, an American exploring vessel, was lost on the coast of Siberia, in 1881.
The most important of the recent expeditions into Arctic legi
The national government issued invitations to all foreign nations having diplomatic relations with the United States to participate in the exhibition by sending the products of their industries.
There was a generous response, and thirty-three nations, besides the United States, were represented—namely, Argentine Republic, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chili, China, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Great Britain and Ireland, India and British colonies, Hawaiian Islands, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Liberia.
Luxemburg Grand Duchy, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Orange Free State, Peru, Portugal, Russia, Santo Domingo, Spain and Spanish colonies, Siam, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunis, Turkey, and Venezuela.
A Woman's executive committee was formed, composed of Philadelphians, who raised money sufficient among the women of the Union for the erection of a building for the exhibition exclusively of women's work—sculpture, painting, engraving, lithography, literature, telegraphy, needlework of a