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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Chinese-American reciprocity. (search)
ago adopted that policy in her foreign intercourse. She has treaty relations with all the European powers, together with the United States, Brazil, Peru, Mexico, Japan, and Korea. All these are equally favored nations in every sense of the term. The Swede and the Dane enjoy the same rights, privileges, immunities, and exemptionvigation, travel, and residence throughout the length and breadth of the empire as are accorded to the Russian or the Englishman. Any favor that may be granted to Japan, for instance, at once inures to the benefit of the United States. Indeed, China, in her treatment of strangers within her gates, has in a great many respects gonth the Chinese, that Honesty is the best policy. I believe that the Western nations want to treat the people of the Orient fairly. It is gratifying to see that Japan has been able to revise her ex-territorial treaties, and it speaks well for the fairmindedness of England and other countries that they have thrown no obstacles in
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Columbus, Christopher 1435-1536 (search)
tine cosmographer, Paul Toscanelli, who gave him an encouraging answer, and sent him a map constructed partly from Ptolemy's and partly from descriptions of Farther India by Marco Polo, a Venetian traveller who told of Cathay (China) and Zipango (Japan) in the twelfth century. In 1477, Columbus sailed northwest from Portugal beyond Iceland to lat. 73°, when pack-ice turned him back; and it is believed that he went southward as far as the coast of Guinea. Unable to fit out a vessel for himselfdiz with a small fleet, mostly caravels. He was not allowed to refit at his own colony of Hispaniola or Santo Domingo, and he sailed to the western verge of the Gulf of Mexico in search of a passage through what he always believed to be Zipango (Japan) to Cathay, or China. After great sufferings, he returned to Spain in November, 1504, old and infirm, to find the good Queen dead, and to experience the bitterness of neglect from Ferdinand, her husband. His claims were rejected by the ungrate
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Consular service, the (search)
which covered a period of over forty years, was spent at San Francisco (1851-1883) and New York (1883-1894); and the late British consul at Paris held that post from 1865 until his death recently. There are two important branches of the service for which candidates are specially trained, and admission to which is by means of a competitive examination open to the public, and whereof due notice is given beforehand in the newspapers —namely, The Levant (Turkey, Egypt, Persia), and the China, Japan, and Siam services. Those who are successful in these examinations are appointed student interpreters. They must be unmarried and between the ages of eighteen and twenty-four. These student interpreters must study Oriental languages either at Oxford or at a British legation or consulate in the country to which they are to be accredited. They are called on to pass further examinations at intervals, and, if successful, they become eligible for employment, first as assistants and afterwa
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cremation, (search)
also at one time the custom of the Chinese. Marco Polo, who travelled in China during the latter part of the thirteenth century, saw a crematory in every town he visited. The custom has long been abolished in China, although it is universal in Japan, where it was introduced by the Buddhists. Even in northern Europe cremation prevailed, according to the statement of Caesar, who relates that the Gauls burned their dead, and placed the ashes in urns which were then buried in mounds. The ancied which was hallowed by the burial of their Lord. The more Christianity spread, the more was cremation condemned, chiefly because it seemed inconsistent with the belief of the resurrection of the dead. At present the custom prevails in India, Japan, and other eastern countries. The practice is of comparatively recent origin in England, Germany, Italy, and the United States, but in these countries it has met with considerable opposition, the chief claims in its favor being on the score of s
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Diplomatic service. (search)
Hunter, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Guatemala City. Haiti. William F. Powell, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Port au Prince. Italy. ————, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Rome. Japan. Alfred E. Buck, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Tokio. Korea. Horace N. Allen, Minister Resident and Consul-General, Seoul. Liberia. Owen L. W. Smith, Minister Resident and Consul-General, Monrovia. Mexico. eñor Don Antonio Lazo Arriaga, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. Haiti. Mr. J. N. Leger, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. Italy. Baron de Fava, Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. Japan. Mr. Kogoro Takahira, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. Korea. Mr. Chin Pom Ye, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. Mexico. Señor Don Manuel de Azpiroz, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Electricity in the nineteenth century. (search)
facturers, chief among which was the Westinghouse Company, also entered the field and became prominent factors in railway extension. In a few years horse traction in the United States on tramway lines virtually disappeared. While the United States and Canada have been and still are the theatre of the enormous advance in electric traction, as in other electric work, many electric car lines have in recent years been established in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Countries like Japan, Australia, South Africa, and South America have also in operation many electric trolley lines, and the work is rapidly extending. Most of this work, even in Europe, has been carried out either by importation of equipment from America, or by apparatus manufactured there, but following American practice closely. In Chicago the application of motorcars in trains upon the elevated railway followed directly upon the practical demonstration at the World's Fair of the capabilities of third-rai
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), English, Earl, 1824-1893 (search)
English, Earl, 1824-1893 Naval officer; born in Crosswicks, N. J., Feb. 18, 1824; entered the navy Feb. 25, 1840; was actively engaged during the Mexican War on the Pacific coast in Mexico and California; also served throughout the Civil War. In 1868, when the Tycoon of Japan was defeated by the Mikado's party, he found refuge on Commander English's ship Iroquois. He was promoted rear-admiral in 1884; retired in 1886. He died in Washington, D. C., July 16, 1893.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fillmore, Millard 1800- (search)
ice of comptroller in February following; and on the death of the President (July, 1850), Mr. Fillmore was inducted into that high office. During his administration the slavery question was vehemently discussed, and was finally set at rest, it was hoped, by the passage of various acts which were parts of compromises proposed in the omnibus bill (q. v.) of Mr. Clay in the summer of 1850. It was during his administration that difficulties with Cuba occurred, diplomatic communications with Japan were opened, measures were adopted looking towards the construction of a railway from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean, and other measures of great public interest occurred. Mr. Fillmore retired from office March 4, 1853, leaving the country in a state of peace within and without, and every department of industry flourishing. In 1852 he was a candidate of the Whig convention for President of the United States, but did not get the nomination. During the spring and summer of 1854 he mad
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fine Arts, the. (search)
njamin West. By purchases and gifts the collection of the academy was unsurpassed in this country in 1845, when the building and most of its contents were destroyed by fire. The as- Rifles used by the principal nations. WeightCalibre nation.GunNo. of Rounds. PoundsOunceInch. AustriaMannlicher9140.3155 BelgiumMauser890.3015 ChinaLee900.4335 DennmarkKrag-Jorgensen980.3155 EnglandLee-Metford940.3038 FranceLebel940.3158 GermanyMannlicher900.3155 ItalyParravicino-Carcano860.2565 JapanMurata900.3158 PortugalKropatschek1040.3158 RussiaMouzin8130.305 SpainMauser8130.2765 Sweden and NorwayKrag-Jorgensen980 305 SwitzerlandSchmidt980.29612 TurkeyMauser890.3015 United States armyKrag-Jorgensen980.305 United States navyLee——0.2365 sociation now has a superb building on Broad Street, which was first opened to the public in April, 1876. Unwise management and alleged injustice to the younger artists who were studying in the New York Academy caused great dissatisfaction, and
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Foster, John Watson 1836- (search)
Mexico in 1873-80, and to Russia in 1880-81. John Watson Foster. On his return to the United States he engaged in the practice of international law in Washington, representing foreign legations before arbitration boards, commissions, etc. In 1883-85 he was minister to Spain; and in 1891 was a special commissioner to negotiate reciprocity treaties with Spain, Germany, Brazil, and the West Indies. He was appointed United States Secretary of State in 1892 and served till 1893, when he became the agent for the United States before the Bering Sea arbitration tribunal at Paris. In 1895, on the invitation of the Emperor of China, he participated in the peace negotiations with Japan; in 1897 he was a special United States commissioner to Great Britain and Russia, and in 1898 was a member of the Anglo-American commission (q. v.). He is the author of A century of American diplomacy, a brief review of the foreign relations of the United States from 1776 to 1876. See Bering sea arbitration.
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