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he Via Praenestina to Palestrina (the ancient Praeneste); Tiburtina to Tivoli; Ostiensis to Ostia; Laurentina to Laurentum, south of Ostia; Salaria, etc. Under Julius Caesar the capital of the Empire was in complete communication with all the principal cities by paved road. During the last African war a paved road was constructed through Spain and Gaul to the Alps. These roads connected the capital with Savoy, Dauphine, and Provence, Germany, all parts of Spain, Gaul, Constantinople, Hungary, Macedonia, and the mouths of the Danube. On the other sides of the intervening waters these roads were continued in Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, England, Asia, and Africa. The Roman roads were distinguished by the names Via, Actus, Iter, Semita, Trames, Diverticulum, Divertium, Callais, etc. The Via was the best, and had a width of 8 Roman feet. The Vioe Militari and other important roads in the neighborhood of Rome had a double width, 16 Roman feet, equal to 15 feet 6 inches Eng
us. A mechanical arrangement to cleanse wool before shearing. Fig. 4952 shows a form of animal shower-bath used in Hungary for this purpose. The sheep are soaked in a stream until the grease and dirty covering of the wool are loosened. The srthwest America, Alaska, the Aleutian Isles, and of China. The goods are exported to America, Russia, China, Turkey, to Hungary and the Austrian States, to England, France, and Italy, a considerable quantity also remaining for use in Germany. Th Copenhagen are made of a concrete of broken stone and hydraulic mortar. The sluice of Francis Joseph on the Danube, in Hungary, is built entirely of concrete. This work forms a reservoir, the bottom and the sides of which consist of one piece. Irs, and dictated a humiliating peace. About this time Charlemagne was subduing the Slavi of the Elbe and the Avars of Hungary. The king of the Franks at Aix-la-Chapelle received from the great Haroun of Bagdad presents, consisting of the keys of
an iron. Split horse-hides are made into tawed, white, or alum leather, and are the material for leather aprons used by the mechanics of various arts, the pioneers of the army in full dress, for thongs of whips, and for other purposes. In Hungary and other countries of Europe, alum-tanned leather, said to be equal to bark-tanned, is used to a considerable extent for harness. The process, it is said, may be completed in 24 hours. Heavy ox or cow hides fresh from the slaughter-house are fliny says:— Stannum illitum aeneis vasis. Dripping-pans have been found at Herculaneum plated with silver. The tin of commerce is derived from the native oxide, which is found in Cornwall, Malacca, the island of Banca, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Australia, Chili, and Mexico. Five kinds of metallic tin are found in the market, known as Banca, Straits, English, Spanish, and Australian. The first, derived from the island where it is produced, is the purest and best. Straits tin comes
d by Senator H. S. Foote, tendering a welcome to the exiled patriot, Gov. Louis Kossuth, during which he used the celebrated expression, equality before the law. I would join in this welcome, not merely because it is essential to complete and crown the work of the last Congress, but because our guest deserves it at our hands. The distinction is great, I know; but it is not so great as his deserts. He deserves it as the early, constant, and incorruptible champion of the liberal cause in Hungary, who, yet while young, with unconscious power girded himself for the contest, and, by a series of masterly labors, with voice and pen, in parliamentary debates, and in the discussions of the press, breathed into his country the breath of life. He deserves it by the great principles of true democracy which he caused to be recognized,--representation of the people without distinction of rank or birth, and equality before the law. He deserves it by the trials he has undergone in prison and in
John Jay Chapman, William Lloyd Garrison, Chapter 4: pictures of the struggle (search)
into her destined port with colors flying and signals of glad tidings floating from her topmast, and the shout of welcome rose from thousands of expectant freedmen on the shore, the boys gave three loud cheers, Hurrah! Hurrah! Hurrah! This irrepressible explosion of their feelings brought them at once to themselves. They blushed, covered their faces, sank down on their seats, one of them upon the floor. It was one thing for the American to thrill for the liberty of Greece, Poland, or Hungary; and another to allow foreign enthusiasts to thrill over American Anti-slavery. Thompson was marked for assassination and kidnapping; and a gibbet was erected for him in Boston. It was Thompson whom the mob were in search of when they caught Garrison at the meeting of the Female Antislavery Society, soon to be described. The impertinence of Thompson consisted in his being a foreigner, and this fact played upon the peculiar American weakness — our sensitiveness to foreign opinion. He com
William Hepworth Dixon, White Conquest: Volume 2, Chapter 35: the situation. (search)
onfessed to having either father or mother born on foreign soil. One in seven was therefore a stranger by birth, nearly one in three a stranger by blood. No other foreign country has so many strangers on her soil. Out of an aggregate approaching eight millions, who have come from all quarters of the globe into America, more than five millions have come from the British Islands and British America; nearly two millions and a half from Germany, including Prussia and Austria, but excluding Hungary and Poland. France and Sweden follow at a distance. Of the non-European nations, China has supplied the largest number; after her come the West Indies and Mexico. But the supplies of settlers from Asia, Africa, Australia, and America (excluding men of English race) do not amount to one man in every dozen men. Thus, the planting of America has been mainly done by persons sailing from English and German ports. Are these migrations from English and German ports likely to go forward on th
John Harrison Wilson, The life of Charles Henry Dana, Chapter 4: in active journalism (search)
nary genius of France first to extinguish the conflagration around themselves, and then to destroy forever that France whence the revolution had gone forth. The spirit of democracy had spread throughout the continent. The people of Italy and Hungary were like those of France and Germany, showing a firm determination to substitute republicanism for despotism. Local disturbances seemed about to merge themselves in European revolution, and the people were everywhere calling for help. But thet she may shirk from the responsibilities which that post implies. The aid which from motives of mere self-interest, she rendered to America in the hour of need she is bound to render from motives of paternal generosity to Italy, to Germany, to Hungary, and to Poland, to every appealing nation to which that aid may avail. Those nations are in some sort her children — called into life by her influence and example-and it is treachery of the same hue, though of a fainter tinge, to allow them to
John Harrison Wilson, The life of Charles Henry Dana, Chapter 5: political studies abroad (search)
10th, and gave a general account of the republican movement throughout Germany. It indicates a close study of conditions not only in that country but in Austria-Hungary as well. In both, as in France, the people were arrayed against the nobility, for the abolition of unjust feudal rights and of unlimited power, for the establishs at Vienna and in the Danubian provinces, as reportedly by the newspapers, but owing to the continuance of the state of siege at Vienna, and of the civil war in Hungary, he gave up his proposed trip to those regions, and returned to Paris, where he arrived December 6 or 7, 1848. The first letter after his arrival is dated Decefeated for the present by the rivalry between Prussia and Austria and the distrust of the other principalities, order was not yet fully re-established. Italy and Hungary were still in a state of turmoil. The pope had not yet returned to the Vatican nor regained his freedom of action, and yet the revolution was everywhere on the w
John Harrison Wilson, The life of Charles Henry Dana, Chapter 6: return to New York journalism (search)
use in the press and on the forum with marvellous eloquence. Dana, true to his sympathies, gave them unstinted praise in the Tribune. His pen was ever true to the call of the downtrodden and oppressed. Liberty was the supreme blessing of mankind then, as it always remained, to him, and this was as true in the case of an individual as in the case of a race or nation. He looked upon France at that time as the sheet-anchor of the liberties of the world, and regarded the issues of the war in Hungary as affecting the interests of all mankind. With deep intensity of feeling, he prayed, May God prosper the right. He criticised and condemned the Russian army, which had gone to the assistance of the Austrian government against its insurgent subjects, as the bane of human liberty, and the heartless tool of tyranny and absolutism. Indeed, no one can read his Tribune editorials on these subjects without being deeply impressed by the unselfish sympathy with which he always advocated the caus
John Harrison Wilson, The life of Charles Henry Dana, Chapter 28: closing period (search)
Americans! And thus it was ever with this patriotic editor. He was the friend and supporter of the oppressed and downtrodden of every race and country. The misgoverned and overtaxed colonists, not less than those who suffered wrong at home, counted with absolute certainty upon Dana's sympathy and support. He had been the friend of Kossuth, of Mazzini, and of Garibaldi. He had pleaded in turn for a Democratic republic in France, for a free and united Germany, for the independence of Hungary, for home rule in Ireland, and for the consolidation and enfranchisement of Italy, and naturally, when he sent greetings to the Cubans, they hailed him as a friend who would stand with them to the last. They looked confidently to him for guidance and assistance, as well as for the creation of a sentiment in their behalf throughout the United States, without which they could not hope to win. Such of their leaders and agents as came to this country hastened to make his acquaintance and to in
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