the tyranny was much harsher; for Hippias's numerous executions and sentences of exile in revenge for his brother led to his being suspicious of everybody and embittered.
About four years after Hipparchus's death the state of affairs in the city was so bad that he set about fortifying Munychia,A hill above the sea S. of the city, commanding Peiraeus and the two other harbors. with the intention of moving his establishment there. While engaged in this he was driven out by the king of Sparta, Cleomenes, as oracles were constantly being given to the Spartans to put down the tyranny, for the following reason.
The exiles headed by the Alcmeonidae were not able to effect their return by their own unaided efforts, but were always meeting reverses; for besides the other plans that were complete failures, they built the fort of LeipsydrionThe name suggests 'water-failure.' Parnes is a mountain in N.E. Attica. in the country, on the slopes of Parnes, where some of their friends
advice of Damonides of Oea (who was believed to suggest to Pericles most of his measures, owing to which they afterwards ostracized him), since he was getting the worst of it with his private resources, to give the multitude what was their own, and he instituted payment for the jury-courts; the result of which according to some critics was their deterioration, because ordinary persons always took more care than the respectable to cast lots for the duty.
Also it was after this that the organized bribery of juries began, Anytus having first shown the way to it after his command at PylosPylos (Navarino) on the W. coast of Peloponnesus, had been taken by Athens 425 B.C, but was retaken by Sparta 409 B.C. Anytus (see also Aristot. Ath. Pol. 34.3, one of the prosecutors of Socrates) was sent with 30 triremes to its relief, but owing to weather never got round Cape Malea.; for when he was brought to trial by certain persons for having lost Pylos he bribed the court and got off.
d actually taken part in the demolition of the fortA projecting mole on the northern side of Peiraeus harbor, commanding the entrance. It had been begun, but was then demolished at the instigation of Theramenes (Thuc. 8.90-92). on Eetionea, or in any act of opposition to the Four Hundred who had instituted the former oligarchy; in both of these proceedings Theramenes had in fact participated, so that the result was that when the laws had been ratified he became outside the constitution and the Thirty had authority to put him to death.
Theramenes having been put out of the way, they disarmed everybody except the Three Thousand, and in the rest of their proceedings went much further in the direction of cruelty and rascality. And they sent ambassadors to Sparta to denounce Theramenes and call upon the Spartans to assist them; and when the Spartans heard this message they dispatched Callibius as governor and about seven hundred troops, who came and garrisoned the Acropolis.
, deposed the Thirty, and elected ten of the citizens as plenipotentiaries to bring the war to a conclusion. These, however, having obtained this office did not proceed to do the things for the purpose of which they had been elected, but sent to Sparta to procure help and to borrow funds.
But this was resented by those within the constitution, and the Ten, in their fear of being deposed from office and their desire to terrify the others (which they succeeded in doing), arrested one of thias's arrival, and after his arrival they zealously supported the return.
For it was Pausanias the king of the Lacedaemonians who brought the peace and reconciliation to fulfillment, with the aid of the ten mediators who later arrived from Sparta, and whose coming was due to the efforts of the king himself. Rhinon and his companions were commended for their goodwill towards the people, and having been appointed to superintend these negotiations under an oligarchy they gave in their accou