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Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, CERES LIBER LIBERAQUE, AEDES (search)
near the west end of the circus Maximus. According to tradition there was a famine in Rome in 496 B.C., and the dictator L. Postumius, after consulting the Sibylline books, vowed a temple to Demeter, Dionysus, and Kore if they would bring abundance again to the city. The temple was built, and dedicated in 493 B.C. by the consul Sp. Cassius (Dionys. vi. 17, 94) to Ceres, Liber, and Libera, with whom the Greek deities were identified. Beloch (Rom. Gesch. 329) assigns it to the fourth century B.C. It was araeostyle, with columns of the Tuscan order, and the fastigium was decorated with statues of gilded bronze or terracotta of Etruscan workmanship (Vitr. iii. 3. 5). The walls of the cella were decorated with frescoes and reliefs by two Greek artists, Gorgasus and Damophilus,Cf. Urlichs, Malerei vor Caesar, 4-5 ; E. Douglas Van Buren, Terracotta Revetments, 31-32. and there was a Greek inscription stating how much had been done by each (Plin. NH xxxv. 154; see Merlin 15
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, HERCULES CUSTOS, AEDES (search)
and the remains of both the unidentified rectangular temple beneath it (HJ 533; BC 1918, 132-136) and of the circular temple near it have been exposed to view. close to its south wall, are the remains of a circular peripteral temple, with concrete podium and fluted columns of tufa, sixteen in number, covered with stucco and standing on travertine bases, fragments of seven of which have been preserved (BC 1893, 191; Alt. 38-40). The masonry of this structure has been attributed to the fourth century B.C., and it is represented on the Marble Plan (FUR fr. Iio). Form and location suggest an identification with the temple of Hercules, but with no degree of certainty (AR 1909, 75-76; P1. 362; BC 1911, 261-264; 1914, 385; RE viii. 571-574; WR 223-224; Rosch. i. 2976-2980; Comment. in hon. Mommsen 266-267; HJ 533, 552; LR 457-458; JRS 1919, 179, 180; BC 1918, 127-136, a vigorous protest against this identification). Frank, however, regards it as belonging to the time of Sulla (from its mat
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, MURUS SERII TULLII (search)
t the battering back of the courses, the use of anathyrosis and the presence of walls of Grotta Oscura tufa of the fourth century B.C. in conjunction with these fragments, are sufficient to make it probable that they should also be assigned to the sks too (Ann. d. Inst. 1876, 72; Richter, Antike Steinmetzzeichen) cannot be referred to an earlier period than the fourth century B.C., and, as the stone came from the Grotta Oscura quarries, in the territory of Veii, soon after the fall of that towrt of a larger enceinte; and we must therefore suppose that it continued to be separately fortified as late as the fourth century B.C. as an additional internal citadel or fort (CR 1902, 336; YW 1907, 22). For the remains of the wall of the fourth cfourth century B.C., see Ann. d. Inst. 1871, 40-85; Jord. i. I. 201-295; BC 1876, 24-38, 121-134, 165-210; 1888, 12-22; 1912, 67-8 ; NS 1884, 223 ; 1910, 495-513 (Boni, whose views as to relative dates, expressed at the end of the article, do not seem to
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, PALATINUS MONS (search)
long either to a separate enceinte contemporary with the Servian wall of the whole city, or to this wall itself (see MURUS SERVII TULLII) ; while those of the fourth century- generally known as the wall of Romulus-on the west and south sides of the hill, may belong to a separate fort, erected perhaps in 378 B.C., further remains o though it is useless to attempt an exact identification, its general situation is certain. A little lower down again is an inhumation tomb, assigned to the fourth century B.C., but found half full of debris of various ages (and therefore tampered with in ancient times); and below it the native rock has been exposed, and pole socketaining walls for raising the level of the whole area after the fire of 111 B.C., which destroyed the temple of the Magna Mater, made of blocks taken from the fourth century fortifications on each side of the Scalae Caci (TF 102-107), but this is by no means certain, and some of them may themselves be part of these fortifications.
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, REGIA (search)
le. In the seventh or eighth century the regia was transformed into a private house, the traces of which are visible in all parts of the area, but especially along the Sacra via, where the house was approached by a flight of two steps roughly made of marble and travertine, on which stood a row of cipollino columns taken from some ancient building. Literature: general-Jord. i. 2. 298-304, 423-429; Gilb. i. 225-227, 305-310, 341-352; iii. 407-410; Thedenat 91-94, 274-277; HC 180-185; RE i. A. 465-469; WR 502; LR 221-223; RL xix. 1910, 201-216, where Pais argues that the regia and Vesta cult were not established in the forum until the fourth century B.C.; for recent excavations-Mitt. 1886, 94-98, 99-111; 1902, 62-66; 1905, 77-80; 1921, 17-23; Archaeologia, 1887, 227-250; Jahrb. d. Inst. 1889, 228-253; NS 1899,220-223,384-386, 486-488; BC 1899, 205-213; 1903, 42-55; 1920, 152-162; CR 1899, 322, 466; 1901, 139; AA 90000, 6-8; Atti 518-525; Toeb. 1-12; TF 81-85; DR 249-274; HFP 36, 37.
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, SATURNUS, AEDES (search)
i. 8. 5; Rosch. iv. 431), which was carried in triumphal processions (Dionys. vii. 72. 13). The day of dedication was the Saturnalia, 17th December (Fast. Amit. ad xvi Kal. Ian., CIL is. p. 245, 337; Liv. xxii. I. 19). There are a few blocks of the podium of the original temple still remaining, and a drain below and in front is probably as early, in which case it and some similar drains close by are the earliest examples of the stone arch in Italy (TF 51-54 attributes the drain to the fourth century B.C., but his suggestion as to its object is unacceptable). There is no trace of any construction of an intermediate period, and the existing podium belongs to the temple of Plancus. It is constructed of walls of travertine and peperino, with concrete filling, and was covered with marble facing. It is 22.50 metres wide, about 40 long, and its front and east side rise very high above the forum because of the slope of the Capitoline hill. The temple was Ionic, hexastyle prostyle, with two co
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, STATUA MARSYAE (search)
appears in relief on the famous plutei (see reff. under ROSTRA AUGUSTI); and coins struck by L. Marcius Censorinus between 86 and 81 B.C. (Babelon, Monnaies, Marcia 42; BM. Rep. i. 338, pl. xl. 3-4) represent the satyr standing on a square pedestal with right foot advanced, a wine skin thrown over his left shoulder with his left hand holding its opening, and his right hand raised. The statue is nude except for sandals and the Phrygian hat (pileus), and represents the Greek type of the fourth century B.C. How long before 8 B.C. this statue was erected in the forum, and why it was brought here, we do not know. According to a recent ingenious theory it was brought from Apamea in 188 B.C. by Cn. Manlius Vulso because of the legendary connection of that city with the tomb of Aeneas, and placed near the lacus Curtius because of a certain parallelism between the legendary self-sacrifice of an Apamean hero and Curtius (A. Reinach, Klio 1914, 321-337). The statue was often crowned with flower