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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 21 21 Browse Search
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M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 3 3 Browse Search
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Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 2 2 Browse Search
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Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 2 2 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 371 BC or search for 371 BC in all documents.

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iv. p. 445; Mitford, ch. 25. sec. 7, ch. 27. sec. 2. Our notices of the rest of the life of Antalcidas are scattered and doubtful. From a passing allusion in the speech of Callistratus the Athenian (Hell. 6.3. 12), we learn that he was then (B. C. 371) absent on another mission to Persia. Might this have been with a view to the negotiation of peace in Greece (see Hell. 6.3), and likewise have been connected with some alarm at the probable interest of Timotheus, son of Conon, at the Persian ctalcidas was one of the ephors, and that, fearing the capture of Sparta, he conveyed his children for safety to Cythera. The same author informs us (Artax. p. 1022d.), that Antalcidas was sent to Persia for supplies after the defeat at Leuctra, B. C. 371, and was coldly and superciliously received by the king. If, considering the general looseness of statement which pervades this portion of Plutarch, it were allowable to set the date of this mission after the invasion of 369, we might possibly
robably derived from his replying to a man who reviled him as not being a genuine Athenian citizen, that the mother of the gods was a Phrygian. In his youth he fought at Tanagra (B. C. 426), and was a disciple first of Gorgias, and then of Socrates, whom he never quitted, and at whose death he was present. (Plat. Phaed. § 59.) He never forgave his master's persecutors, and is even said to have been instrumental in procuring their punishment. (D. L. 6.10.) He survived the battle of Leuctra (B. C. 371), as he is reported to have compared the victory of the Thebans to a set of schoolboys beating their master (Plut. Lyc. 30), and died at Athens, at the age of 70. (Eudocia, Violarium, p. 56.) He taught in the Cynosarges, a gymnasium for the use of Athenians born of foreign mothers, near the temple of Hercules. Hence probably his followers were called Cynics, though the Scholiast on Aristotle (p. 23, Brandis) deduces the name from the habits of the school, either their dog-like neglect of a
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Archida'mus Iii. king of Sparta, 20th of the Eurypontids, was son of Agesilaus II. We first hear of him as interceding with his father in behalf of Sphodrias, to whose son Cleonymus he was attached, and who was thus saved, through the weak affection of Agesilaus, from the punishment which his unwarrantable invasion of Attica had deserved, B. C. 378. (Xen. Hell. 5.4. §§ 25-33 ; Diod. 15.29; Plut. Ages. 100.25; comp. Plut. Pel. 100.14.) In B. C. 371, he was sent, in consequence of the illness of Agesilaus (Xen. Hell. 5.4.58; Plut. Ages. 100.27), to succour the defeated Spartans at Leuctra; but Jason of Pherae had already mediated between them and the Thebans, and Archidanmus, meeting his countrymen on their return at Aegosthena in Megara, dismissed the allies, and led the Spartans home. (Xen. Hell. 6.4. §§ 17-26; comp. Diod. 15.54, 55; Wess. ad loc.; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. v. p. 78, note.) In 367, with the aid of the auxiliaries furnished by Dionysius I. of Syracuse, he defeated the
Au'tocles 2. Son of Strombichides, was one of the Athenian envoys empowered to negotiate peace with Sparta in B. C. 371. (Xen. Hell. 6.3.2; comp. Diod. 15.38.) Xenophon (Xenoph. Hell. 6.3.7, &c.) reports a somewhat injudicious speech of his, which was delivered on this occasion before the congress at Sparta, and which by no means confirms the character, ascribed to him in the same passage, of a skilful orator. It was perhaps this same Autocles who, in B. C. 362, was appointed to the command in Thrace, and was brought to trial for having caused, by his inactivity there, the triumph of Cotys over the rebel Miltocythes. (Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 655, c. Polycl. p. 1207.) Aristotle (Aristot. Rh. 2.23.12) refers to a passage in a speech of Autocles against Mixidemides, as illustrating one of his rhetorical to/poi. [E.E]
y believe the statement of the accused, the bough was placed there by Callias himself, who was provoked at having been thwarted by Andocides in a very disgraceful and profligate attempt. In B. C. 392, we find him in command of the Athenian heavy-armed troops at Corinth on the occasion of the famous defeat of the Spartan Mora by Iphicrates. (Xen. Hell. 4.5.13.) He was hereditary proxenus of Sparta, and, as such, was chosen as one of the envoys empowered to negotiate peace with that state in B. C. 371, on which occasion Xenophon reports an extremely absurd and self-glorifying speech of his (Hell. 6.3.2, &c., comp. 5.4.22.) A vain and silly dilettante, an extravagant and reckless profligate, he dissipated all his ancestral wealth on sophists, flatterers, and women; and so early did these propensities appear in him, that he was commonly spoken of, before his father's death, as the "evil genius" (a)lith/rios) of his family. (Andoc. de Myst. § 130, &c.; comp. Aristoph. Frogs 429, Av. 284. &
Cephiso'dotus 2. An Athenian general and orator, who was sent with Callias, Autocles, and others (B. C. 371) to negotiate peace with Sparta. (Xen. Hell. 6.3.2.) Again, in B. C. 369, when the Spartan ambassadors had come to Athens to settle the terms of the desired alliance between the states, and the Athenian council had proposed that the land-forces of the confederacy should be under the command of Sparta, and the navy under that of Athens, Cephisodotus persuaded the assembly to reject the proposal, on the ground that, while Athenian citizens would have to serve under Spartan generals, few but Helots (who principally manned the ships) would be subject to Athenian control. Another arrangement was then adopted, by which the command of the entire force was to be held by each state alternately for five days. (Xen. Hell. 7.1. §§ 12-14.) It seems to have been about B. C. 359 that he was sent out with a squadron to the Hellespont, where the Athenians hoped that the Euboean adventurer, Char
ther. (Paus. 8.30.5.) Now, as it is evident that the inhabitants of that town would erect a temple to the preserver of their new-built city immediately after its foundation, Cephisodotus most likely finished his work not long after Ol. 102. 2. (B. C. 371.) It seems that at the same time, after the congress of Sparta, B. C. 371, he executed for the Athenians a statue of Peace, holding Plutus the god of riches in her arms. (Paus. 1.8.2, 9.16.2.) We ascribe this work to the elder Cephisodotus, altB. C. 371, he executed for the Athenians a statue of Peace, holding Plutus the god of riches in her arms. (Paus. 1.8.2, 9.16.2.) We ascribe this work to the elder Cephisodotus, although a statue of Enyo is mentioned as a work of Praxiteles' sons, because after Ol. 120 we know of no peace which the Athenians might boast of, and because in the latter passage Pausanias speaks of the plan of Cephisodotus as equally good with the work of his contemporary and companion Xenophon, which in the younger Cephisodotus would have been only an imitation. The most numerous group of his workmanship were the nine Muses on mount Helicon, and three of another group there, completed by Stro
Cleo'nymus 2. A Spartan, son of Sphodrias, was much beloved by Archidamus, the son of Agesilaus. When Sphodrias was brought to trial for his incursion into Attica in B. C. 378, the tears of Cleonymus prevailed on the prince to intercede with Agesilaus on his behalf. The king, to gratify his son, used all his influence to save the accused, who was accordingly acquitted. Cleonymus was extremely grateful, and assured Archidamus that he would do his best to give him no cause to be ashamed of their friendship. He kept his promise well, acting ever up to the Spartan standard of virtue, and fell at Leuctra, B. C. 371, bravely fighting in the foremost ranks. (Xen. Hell. 5.4. §§ 25-33; Plut. Ages. 25, 28
Corvus 2. M. Valerius Corvus, one of the most illustrious men in the early history of the republic, was born about B. C. 371 in the midst of the struggles attending the Licinian laws. Being a member of the great Valerian house, he had an early opportunity of distinguishing himself, and we accordingly find him serving in B. C. 349 as military tribune in the army of the consul L. Furius Camillus in his campaign against the Gauls. His celebrated exploit in this war, from which he obtained the surname of " Corvus," or " Raven," is, like many other of the achievements of the early Roman heroes, mingled with fable. A Gallic warrior of gigantic size challenged to single combat any one of the Romans. It was accepted by Valerius after obtaining the consent of the consul, and as he was commencing the combat, a raven settled upon his helmet, and, as often as he attacked the Gaul, the raven flew at the face of the foe, till at length the barbarian fell by the sword of Valerius. A general battle
the spirit and confidence of the Theban youths, urging them to match themselves in gymnastic exercises with the Lacedaemonians of the citadel, and rebuking them, when successful in these, for the tameness of their submission to the invaders ; and, when the first step in the enterprise had been taken, ard Archias and Leontiades were slain, he came forward and took part decisively with Pelopidas and his confederates. (Plut. Pel. 5, 12, de Gen. Soc. 3; Polyaen. 2.2; Xen. Hell. 5.4.2, &c.) In B. C. 371, when the Athenian envoys went to Sparta to negotiate peace, Epaminondas also came thither, as an ambassador, to look after the interests of Thebes, and highly distinguished himself by his eloquence and ready wit in the debate which ensued on the question whether Thebes should be allowed to ratify the treaty in the name of all Boeotia, thus obtaining a recognition of her claim to supremacy over the Boeotian towns. This being refused by the Spartans, the Thebans were excluded from the treat
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