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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 61 61 Browse Search
E. T. Merrill, Commentary on Catullus (ed. E. T. Merrill) 8 8 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 7 7 Browse Search
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero 6 6 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 4 4 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 3 3 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares (ed. L. C. Purser) 3 3 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Letters to and from Quintus (ed. L. C. Purser) 2 2 Browse Search
C. Julius Caesar, Gallic War 2 2 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Letters to Atticus (ed. L. C. Purser) 2 2 Browse Search
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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
e of Cicero, and so did him more essential service than any direct defence of himself could have done. The whole house applauded. (Pro Sext. 56.) On another occasion, instead of " Brutus qui libertatem civium stabiliverat," he substituted Tullius, and the audience gave utterance to their enthusiasm by encoring the passage " a thousand times" (millies revocatum est, Pro Sext. 58). The time of his death or his age cannot be fixed with certainty; but at the dedication of the theatre of Pompey (B. C. 55), he would seem to have been elderly, for he was understood previously to have retired from the stage, and we do not hear of his being particularly delicate : yet, from the passage, ill-health or age would appear to have been the reason of his retiring. On that occasion, however, in honour of the festival, he appeared again; but just as he was coming to one of the most emphatic parts, the beginning of an oath, Si sciens fallo, etc., his voice failed him, and he could not go through with the
wever, (B. C. 60), Afranius did not do much for Pompey (D. C. 37.49), but probably more from want of experience in political affairs than from any want of inclination. In B. C. 59 Afranius had the province of Cisalpine Gaul (comp. Cic. Att. 1.19), and it may have been owing to some advantages he had gained over the Gauls, that he obtained the triumph, of which Cicero speaks in his oration against Piso. (c. 24.) When Pompey obtained the provinces of the two Spains in his second consulship (B. C. 55), he sent Afranius and Petreius to govern Spain in his name, while he himself remained in Rome. (Vell. 2.48.) On the breaking out of the civil war, B. C. 49, Afranius was still in Spain with three legions, and after uniting his forces with those of Petreius, he had to oppose Caesar in the same year, who had crossed over into Spain as soon as he had obtained possession of Italy. After a short campaign, in which Afranius and Petreius gained some advantages at first, they were reduced to such
says that Ageladas, with Polycletus, Phradmon, and Myron, flourished in the 87th Ol. This agrees with the statement of the scholiast on Aristophanes, that at Melite there was a statue of *(Hraklh=s a)leci/kakos, the work of Ageladas the Argive, which was set up during the great pestilence. (Ol. 87. 3. 4.) To these authorities must be added a passage of Pausanias (4.33.3), where he speaks of a statue of Zeus made by Ageladas for the Messenians of Naupactus. This must have been after the year B. C. 55, when the Messenians were allowed by the Athenians to settle at Naupactus. In order to reconcile these conflicting statements, some suppose that Pliny's date is wrong, and that the statue of Hercules had been made by Ageladas long before it was set up at Melite : others (as Meyer and Siebelis) that Pliny's date is correct, but that Ageladas did not make the statues of the Olympic victors mentioned by Pausanias till many years after their victories ; which in the case of three persons, the d
Appuleius 3. APPULEIUS, proquaestor, to whom Cicero addresses two letters (ad Fam. 13.45, 46), was perhaps the proquaestor of Q. Philippus, the proconsul, in Asia B. C. 55.
trab. ll. cc.; Dio Cass. l.c.) According to Strabo, the Roman senate would not permit Archelaus to take part in the war against Parthia, and Archelaus left Gabinius in secret; whereas, according to Dio Cassius, Gabinius was induced by bribes to assist Archelaus in his suit for the hand of Berenice, while at the same time he received bribes from Ptolemy Auletes on the understanding that he would restore him to his throne. Archelaus enjoyed the honour of king of Egypt only for six months, for Gabinius kept his promise to Ptolemy, and in B. C. 55 he marched with an army into Egypt, and in the battle which ensued, Archelaus lost his crown and his life. His daughter too was put to death. (Strab. ll. cc.; D. C. 39.58 ; Liv. Epit. lib. 105; Cic. pro Rabir. Post. 8; V. Max. 10.1, extern. 6.) M. Antonius, who had been connected with the family of Archelaus by ties of hospitality and friendship, had his body searched for among the dead, and buried it in a manner worthy of a king. (Plut. Ant. 3.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Mithridates III. (search)
Arsaces Xiii. or Mithridates III. MITHRIDATES III., the son of the preceding, succeeded his father apparently during the Armenian war. On his return from Armenia, Mithridates was expelled from the throne, on account of his cruelty, by the Parthian senate, as it is called, and was succeeded by his brother Orodes. Orodes appears to have given Media to Mithridates, but to have taken it from him again; whereupon Mithridates applied to the Roman general, Gabinius, in Syria, B. C. 55, who promised to restore him to Parthia, but soon after relinquished his design in consequence of having received a great sum from Ptolemy to place him upon the throne of Egypt. Mithridates, however, seems to have raised some troops; for he subsequently obtained possession of Babylon, where, after sustaining a long siege, he surrendered himself to his brother, and was immediately put to death by his orders. (Justin, 42.4; D. C. 39.56; Appian, Syr.51; Joseph. B.J. 1.8.7.)
lly at the latter. He was the manager and steward of Caesar's private property in the city, and a great part of the Gallic booty passed through his hands. But his increasing wealth and influence raised him many enemies among the nobles, who were still more anxious to ruin him, as he was the favourite of the triumvirs. They accordingly induced an inhabitant of Gades to accuse him of having illegally assumed the rights and privileges of a Roman citizen. The cause came on for trial probably in B. C. 55; and as there was yet no breach between Pompey and Caesar, Balbus was defended by Pompey and Crassus, and also by Cicero, who undertook the defence at Pompey's request, and whose speech on the occasion has come down to us. Balbus was acquitted, and justly, as is shewn in the article Foederatae Civitates in the Dict. of Ant. In the civil war, in B. C. 49, Balbus remained at Rome, and endeavoured to some extent to keep up the semblance of neutrality. Thus he looked after the pecuniary affai
of the famous Cleopatra (Strab. xii. p.558), was placed on the throne by the Alexandrines when they drove out her father, B. C. 58. (D. C. 39.12, &c.; Liv. Epit. 104; Plut. Cat. Mi. 35; Strab. xvii. p.796.) She married first Seleucus Cybiosactes, brother of Antiochus XIII. (Asiaticus) of Syria, who had some claim to the throne of Egypt through his mother Selene, the sister of Lathyrus. Berenice, however, was soon disgusted with the sordid character of Seleucus, and caused him to be put to death. (Strab. l.c.; D. C. 39.57; comp. Sueton. Vespas. 19.) She next married Archelaus, whom Pompey had made priest and king of Comana in Pontus, or, according to another account, in Cappadocia; but, six months after this, Auletes was restored to his kingdom by the Romans under Gabinius, and Archelaus and Berenice were slain, B. C. 55. (Liv. Epit. 105; D. C. 39.55-58; Strab. xvii. p.796, xii. p. 558; Hirt. de Bell. Alex. 66; Plut. Ant. 3; comp. Cic. Fam. 1.1-7, ad Q. Fr. 2.2.) II. Jewish Berenices.
everal attempts to recover their independence ; and it was not till their revolts had been again and again put down by Caesar, and the flower of the nation had perished in battle, that they learnt to submit to the Roman yoke. In the next year, B. C. 55, Pompey and Crassus were consuls, and proceeded to carry into execution the arrangement which had been entered into at Luca. They experienced, however, more opposition than they had anticipated: the aristocracy, headed by Cato, threw every obstars, namely, from the 1st of January, B. C. 58 to the end of December, B. C. 54 ; and now, by the law of Trebonius, the provinces were continued to him for five years more, namely, from the 1st of January, B. C. 53 to the end of the year 49. In B. C. 55, Caesar left Italy earlier than usual, in order to make preparations for a war with the Germans. This was his fourth campaign in Gaul. The Gauls had suffered too much in the last three campaigns to make any further attempt against the Romans at
Canu'sius (*Panou/sios), or GANU'SIUS, apparently a Greek historian, who seems to have been a contemporary of Julius Caesar; for it is on the authority of Canusius that Plutarch (Plut. Caes. 22) relates, that when the senate decreed a supplication on account of the successful proceedings of Caesar in Gaul, B. C. 55, Cato declared that Caesar ought to be delivered up to the barbarians, to atone for his violation of the laws of nations. [L.
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