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inhabited the Mississippi valley at some distant age of the past, they also probably spread over this region, for its ever-living streams, lovely valleys, and occasional prairies, must always have been very inviting to peoples following a nomadic or pastoral life. Though our camp is on the edge of a prairie, the country a few miles to the east of us is rugged and hilly, and less adapted to agricultural purposes than the country to the west of us, in the Grand River valley. But as the Grand River country belongs to the Cherokees, no one can say when its agricultural resources will be developed, even should the war close immediately. The number of negro refugees, who have gained their freedom since we came into this State, are getting to be a good deal of a burden. Their almost destitute condition, causes many of them to commit acts that are not sanctioned by our ideas of strict morality. We find employment for some of them as teamsters and servants, but still there are many
tion, except along the river bottoms. The Cowskin or Elk river, which flows in a westerly course, nearly through the centre of the county, is not perceptibly smaller here than at Scott's Mills. It differs from our Kansas rivers in this respect, that it discharges a large volume of water the year round, while they almost dry up during the summer months of dry seasons. With some attention given to its improvement for navigation, light draft steamers might run on it between this point and Grand River several months of the year. It flows over a gravelly bottom, and is as clear as a crystal, being fed by perpetual springs. Water-power mills have been constructed upon it wherever required. In this vicinity, and for ten or fifteen miles above here, a number of saw mills were in operation before the war, making lumber. This is the only county in southwest Missouri in which there are any pine forests. Hence, therefore, all the pine lumber used for building and other purposes, in the co
few days ago had a skirmish with Livingston's band about sixteen miles north of Neosho, and got three of his men badly wounded, but succeeded in killing and wounding seven of the enemy, and putting the remainder to flight. Captain Mefford is an experienced officer, and a better one could not be selected to deal with Livingston's guerrillas. Several persons who have just arrived from Fort Gibson report that grass is coming up in sufficient quantities on the Arkansas River and lower Grand River bottoms for grazing purposes. While Indian ponies might live there on the grass now, it will probably be two or three weeks before our cavalry horses can live on wild grass, and perform the service required of them. It is necessary that they should have such strength-giving food as corn and oats, if the cavalry arm of the service is to be very effective. But all the approaching signs of spring increase the anxiety of the Indians to get into the nation. They have, not, however, as yet
and takes Fort Gibson Description of the place its importance the beautiful Grand and Verdigris Rivers. This is April Fool's day, but no one has come to me als division for upwards of thirty days. And they stand on a bluff overlooking Grand River to the west. The officers' and soldiers' quarters are wooden structures, anand south-west, you see at the distance of two miles, the western heights of Grand River. Further to the south-west may be seen a prairie region with a strip of timch empties into the Arkansas River some five or six miles above the mouth of Grand River. The junctions of these three rivers, the Arkansas, the Grand and the Verdiun to this point, but sometimes for nearly a hundred miles above here on the Grand River. I saw an inscription on a tombstone yesterday, that a Lieutenant of the Reof sand bars. It is turbid and treacherous, and contrasts strongly with the Grand River, which is perfectly clear except during the season of heavy rains, and flows
rn line of Kansas will move all the way down on the west side of Grand river, and therefore doubtless be freer from attacks by the enemy thanrequently difficult for cavalry, artillery and infantry to cross Grand River, for a distance of seventy to eighty miles above here, without pus here on the 13th, it would have come down on the west side of Grand River, instead of via Maysville on the State line road. We do not belde of the Arkansas, and as it is not fordable below the mouth of Grand river, we may not be able to disturb them for a few days. With a rivn on the old Military road, which runs along on the west side of Grand River. Those who came down with the train from Neosho, state that st side is a steep bluff running down to the water's edge of the Grand River. The area to be inclosed on three sides will be about ten acrest stream of grape and canister. The heights on the west side of Grand River are too distant for an enemy to shell us with much effect with o
s of caution, and suggested that it would be safest to follow the road along the east side of Grand River until we came to Lewis Ross's place near Grand Saline, some thirty miles above Fort Gibson. train and animals taken to our camp on Cabin Creek, a few miles from here on the west side of Grand river. The salt works near here have made this locality one of considerable importance for manymight run into a detachment unless we were very cautious. As there is a good crossing of the Grand River near Grand Saline, and as it is always fordable after a rise in the river, before any other pnemy to strike, should they have serious intentions of attacking our trains. When we left Grand river at Grand Saline, we marched across the country in a northeast direction, with the intention oout ten miles to the South of it, as it would shorten our route considerably. We then struck Grand River about eight miles above Grand Saline. The grass had grown astonishingly since we came up, an
these forces crossed the river below here for the purpose of going up on the east side of the Grand River, and that the other force crossed the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers, some seven or eight miles above this post, for the purpose of going up on the west side of Grand River, with the view of forming a junction near Cabin Creek, and attacking our supply train, which is expected down from Fort Scott in a few days. If the force really went up on the east side of Grand River, we must have passed very near it some time yesterday when on the way here with dispatches and mail from Cassville. e, while their most important movements, are directed to another quarter, to the west side of Grand river, for the purpose of capturing our commissary train On the 22d our scouts brought in information. that a large force of the enemy crossed the Arkansas above the mouths of the Grand and the Verdigris rivers, and are believed to be moving northward. Whether it is their intention to conti
keep up with the advance guard. We were moving along quietly, and approaching the timber on Grand River about five miles northwest of the fort, and, perhaps, nearly an hour before day-break, when wsoon as the enemy had been driven from the field, the train was set in motion, and arrived at Grand River opposite to the fort just after sunrise. During the day one or two wagon loads of the enemy' received information through our scouts, that the enemy had another strong force above us on Grand River, which failed to co-operate with the force that engaged us in the morning. So far as we can robably, perceptibly affected the volume of water flowing in the Arkansas, above the month of Grand river. The spring rise of the Arkansas is almost as regular as the rise of the Nile. If we had. Our commissary train started back to Fort Scott on the evening of the 30th, and crossed Grand River twelve miles above this post, on account of its being too high to ford in this vicinity. Nea
ch is one man's food, is another man's poison. Grand River has risen considerably since June 29th, and we her train there several days. How this rise in the Grand River will affect the operations of the two opposing foamped near Grand Saline, who were unable to.cross Grand River on account of its being so full, and that the riv a little to the southeast, and empties into the Grand River not more than three miles distant. The topographye miles east of Cabin Creek, on the east bank of Grand River, the day before, and was unable to cross and join our troops crossed Cabin Creek, and to have swam Grand River, some seven or eight miles to the southeast. Sevral Cabell would probably have been able to cross Grand River with his force, and to have joined in the engagemachments; and that a good many attempted to swim Grand River with their horses for fear of being cut off by ouand were doubtless drowned in attempting to cross Grand River on the last day of the engagement at Cabin Creek.
es of English blood cling to their homesteads on the march up the beautiful Grand River country looking out for General Cabell's force the escort meets General Blprairie grass can be found within ten miles of this post on the west side of Grand River. With most of our troops south of the Arkansas, a very strong guard would nThe commissary train finished unloading on the 6th, and was all ferried over Grand River during the night, to be in readiness to start north early on the morning of er north if deemed necessary. The train and escort left the west side of Grand River, opposite Fort Blunt, on the morning of the 7th, and marched to Flat Rock C Cabin Creek, as it was not known but that General Cabell might have crossed Grand River at Grand Saline, with his force, with the view of attacking the train on itsped not more than ten or fifteen miles from Cabin Creek, on the east side of Grand River. We went into camp, on the Neosho River, on the 10th. The escort under
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