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nd took to its sympathy and protection the widow and orphans of the first Virginian whose blood was shed in her cause, many and bitter were the vows made around the bivouac to avenge his untimely end. The men who made the grim vow were of the stuff to keep it; the name of Jackson, the Martyr, became a war-cry, and the bloody tracks of Manassas How that oath was kept can tell! On the 23d of May, Joseph E. Johnston received his commission as General in the Regular Army, and went to Harper's Ferry in command of all troops in that region-known as the Army of the Shenandoah. Beauregard, with the same grade, was recalled on his way to the West, and sent to command at Manassas. From the great ease of putting troops across the fords of the Potomac into Virginia, it was considered necessary to concentrate, at points from which they could be easily shifted, a sufficient reliable force to meet any such movement; and the two officers in whom the government had greatest confidence as t
it and chafed under the necessary restraints of discipline, like hounds in the leash. When General Johnston took command of the Army of the Shenandoah at Harper's Ferry, he at once saw that with the small force at his command the position was untenable. To hold it, the heights on both sides of the river commanding it would hJohnston's supplies and at the same time effect his desired junction with McClellan. To prevent this, about the middle of June, General Johnston evacuated Harper's Ferry, destroying the magazines and a vast amount of property, and fell back to Winchester. Then, for one month, Patterson and he played at military chess, on a fito join Beauregard. Well did General Scott say, Beware of Johnston's retreats; for-whatever the country may have thought of it at the time — the retreat from Harper's Ferry culminated in the battle of Manassas! Meanwhile, in Richmond the excitement steadily rose, but the work of strengthening the defenses went steadily on. Fr
ign on the enemy's soil. Jackson passed with his accustomed swiftness to the occupation of the heights commanding Harper's Ferry and to the investment of that position; while the other corps moved to the river at different points, to cut off the It was hard to tell which side had the best of the actual fighting; but the great object was gained and the next day Harper's Ferry, with its heavy garrison and immense supply of arms, stores and munitions, was surrendered to Jackson. Great was nd a pall of doubt and dismay was to drape the fair form of Hope, even in her infancy. Two days after the fall of Harper's Ferry — on the 17th of September-Lee had massed some 35,000 men on the banks of the Antietam, near Sharpsburg — a village ten miles north-east of Harper's Ferry. McClellan, pressing him hard with an army four times his own numbers-composed in part of raw levies and hastily-massed militia, and in part of the veterans of the armies of the Potomacseemed determined on batt