nication with our base.
This changed condition of affairs had been accomplished within five days after General Grant's arrival at the front.
As soon as the enemy recovered from his surprise, he woke up to the importance of the achievement; Longstreet was despatched to retrieve, if possible, the lost ground.
His troops reached Wauhatchie in the night of the 28th, and made an attack upon Geary's division of Hooker's forces.
The fight raged for about three hours, but Geary succeeded in holdiun away.
Fortunately for their reputation and the safety of the command, they started toward the enemy, and with heads down and tails up, with trace-chains rattling and whiffletrees snapping over the stumps of trees, they rushed pell-mell upon Longstreet's bewildered men. Believing it to be an impetuous charge of cavalry, his line broke and fled.
The quartermaster in charge of the animals, not willing to see such distinguished services go unrewarded, sent in the following communication: I res
the headquarters mess
on the eve of battle
Longstreet's estimate of Grant
an Early breakfast at headquarters isted of three infantry corps, commanded respectively by Longstreet, Ewell, and A. P. Hill, and a cavalry corps commanded by, a suit of clothes, and an extra pair of boots.
General Longstreet, then commanding a corps in Lee's army, told me, sev the western general who was to confront them, at which Longstreet said: Do you know Grant No, the officer replied.
Well, I do, continued Longstreet.
I was in the corps of cadets with him at West Point for three years, I was present at his weddial Grant remarked: As Burnside's corps, on our side, and Longstreet's, on the other side, have not been engaged, and the troll at 4:30 A. M., so as to strike him if possible before Longstreet could arrive to reinforce him. Burnside, who would arriveep the troops opposed to them from reinforcing Hill and Longstreet.
Burnside's fourth division was to guard the wagon-trai
art's cavalry on the left at Todd's tavern, in which our troops were completely victorious.
The sound of this conflict was mistaken for a time for an attack by Longstreet from that direction, and made Hancock anxious to strengthen his exposed left flank.
His embarrassments were increased by one of those singular accidents which,heir breastworks along the Brock road.
The enemy pressed on to within a few hundred yards of the intrenchments, but did not venture to assault.
In this attack Longstreet was badly wounded, and the Confederate general Jenkins was killed, both having been accidently shot by their own men. We suffered a severe loss in the death of the gallant General Wadsworth.
After Longstreet's removal from the field, Lee took command of his right in person, as we learned afterward, and ordered that any further assault should be postponed till a later hour.
Colonel Leasure's brigade of Burnside's corps now executed a movement of striking brilliancy.
It had been sent
untered him never failed to feel the effect of this inborn prejudice against turning back.
However, a slight retrograde movement became absolutely necessary in the present instance, and the general yielded to the force of circumstances.
An orderly was stationed at the fork of the roads to indicate the right direction to Warren's troops when they should reach that point, and our party proceeded to Todd's tavern, reaching there soon after midnight. It was learned afterward that Anderson's (Longstreet's) corps had been marching parallel with us, and at a distance of less than a mile, so that the apprehension felt was well founded.
The general and staff bivouacked upon the ground.
The night was quite chilly, and a couple of fires were lighted to add to our comfort.
General Grant lay down with his officers beside one of the fires, without any covering; when asleep, an aide quietly spread an overcoat over him. For about four hours we all kept turning over every few minutes so as to g
ption, personal gallantry, and soldierly bearing pleased me, and a few days ago I should have been inclined to place him in command of the Army of the Potomac in case Meade had been killed; but I began to feel, after his want of vigor in assaulting on the 8th, that he was not as efficient as I had believed, and his delay in attacking and the feeble character of his assaults to-day confirm me in my apprehensions.
This was said in a kindly spirit, but with an air of serious disappointment.
Longstreet's troops had continued to confront Warren, knowing that to lose that part of the enemy's line would expose the troops at the angle to a flank attack, and the obstacles to a successful assault were really very formidable.
Warren was blamed not so much for not carrying the line in his front as for delays in making the attack.
The general now started for another part of the field, and kept moving from point to point to get a close view of the fighting on different parts of the line.
of Newmarket Heights.
In these engagements I was fortunate enough to be able to render service which was deemed to be of some importance by the general-in-chief, who wrote to Washington asking that I be breveted a lieutenant-colonel in the regular army for gallant and meritorious services in action ; and the appointment to that rank was made by the President.
As a result of these operations, Hill's command had been withdrawn from Petersburg and sent to Hancock's front, and a division of Longstreet's corps, which had been under marching orders for the Valley, was detained.
General Grant was now giving daily watchfulness and direction to four active armies in the field-those of Meade, Butler, Sheridan, and Sherman.
They constituted a dashing four-in-hand, with Grant holding the reins.
These armies no longer moved like horses in a balky team, no two ever pulling together.
While some of them were at long distances from the others, they were acting in harmony, and cooperating with
base of supplies.
Sherman now called for reinforcements, and Grant directed all recruits in the West to be sent to him.
On September 29 Hood crossed the Chattahoochee River.
This was the day on which Grant made the movements herein-before described against Richmond and Petersburg, with a view to preventing Lee from detaching any troops.
There were some who thought Grant manifested unnecessary anxiety on this subject: but it must be remembered that just one year before, Lee had sent Longstreet's whole corps to northern Georgia; that it was not discovered until it was well on its way to join Bragg's forces against Rosecrans's army at Chickamauga; and that it accomplished the reverse which occurred to our arms on that field.
Besides, Grant's mind seemed always more concerned about preventing disasters to the armies of his distant commanders than to the troops under his own personal direction.
He was invariably generous to others, and his self-reliance was so great that he always
ugh our lines, and was dated the day before.
After referring to a recent meeting under a flag of truce between Ord and Longstreet, from which the impression was derived that General Grant would not refuse to see him if he had authority to act for thmaking some compensation for the emancipated slaves, etc., by the national government, it should be arranged to have Mrs. Longstreet, who had been an old friend of Mrs. Grant, visit her at City Point, and after that to try and induce Mrs. Grant to vood will, which would everywhere lead to demonstrations in favor of peace between the two sections of the country.
General Longstreet says that the project went so far that Mrs. Longstreet, who was at Lynchburg, was telegraphed to come on to RichmonMrs. Longstreet, who was at Lynchburg, was telegraphed to come on to Richmond.
The plan outlined in this order of procedure was so visionary that it seems strange that it could ever have been seriously discussed by any one; but it must be remembered that the condition of the Confederacy was then desperate, and that drowni
toward the east, and close up toward the inner-lines which covered Petersburg.
Lee had been pushed so vigorously that he seemed for a time to be making but little effort to recover any of his lost ground; but now he made a determined fight against Parke's corps, which was threatening his inner line on his extreme left, and the bridge across the Appomattox.
Repeated assaults were made, but Parke resisted them all successfully, and could not be stirred from his position.
Lee had ordered Longstreet's command from the north side of the James, and with these troops reinforced his extreme right.
General Grant dismounted near a farm-house which stood on a knoll, from which he could get a good view of the field of operations.
He seated himself on the ground at the foot of a tree, and was soon busy receiving despatches and writing orders to officers conducting the advance.
The position was under fire, and as soon as the group of staff-officers was seen, the enemy's guns began paying
ed to McLean's house, where he sat on the porch until it was time to take his final departure.
It will be observed that Grant at no time actually entered the enemy's lines.
Ingalls, Sheridan, and Williams had asked permission to visit the enemy's lines and renew their acquaintance with some old friends, classmates, and former comrades in arms who were serving in Lee's army.
They now returned, bringing with them General Cadmus M. Wilcox, who had been one of General Grant's groomsmen; Longstreet, who had also been at his wedding; Heth, who had been a subaltern with him in Mexico, besides Gordon, Pickett, and a number of others.
They all stepped up to pay their respects to General Grant, who received them very cordially, and talked frankly and pleasantly with them until it was time to leave.
They manifested a deep appreciation of the terms which had been accorded to them in the articles of surrender, but several of them expressed some apprehension as to the civil processes which