. All the troops of the enemy in reserve in Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, and Illinois were brought forward, except the force of Curtis, in Arkansas, and placed in front of our position.
No definite idea of their number was formed.
In the opinion of Beauregard, a general attack was not to be hazarded; on May 3d, however, an advance was made to attack the corps of General Pope, when only one of his divisions was in position, and that gave way so rapidly it could not be overtaken.
Again on May 9th an advance was made, hoping to surprise the enemy.
But a division, which should have been in position at three o'clock in the morning, or early dawn, was detained until three in the afternoon by the mistakes of the guide.
The enemy thus became informed of the movement, and no surprise could be effected.
General Beauregard commenced the removal of his sick, preparatory to an evacuation, on May 26th; on the next day arrangements for falling back were made, and the work completed on the 29
tolerated but approved.
Feeling itself, therefore, fortified in its unlimited power from necessity, the wheels of the revolution were now to move with accelerated velocity in their destructive work.
Accordingly, a manifesto soon comes from the Executive on universal emancipation.
On April 25, 1862, the United States Major General Hunter, occupying a position at Hilton Head, South Carolina, issued an order declaring the states of Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina under martial law. On May 9th the same officer issued another order, declaring the persons held as slaves in those States to be for ever free.
The Executive of the United States, on May 19th, issued a proclamation declaring the order to be void, and said:
I further make known that, whether it be competent for me as commanderin-chief of the army and navy to declare the slaves of any State or States free, and whether at any time or in any case it shall have become a necessity indispensable to the maintenance of the G
ght be made.
Disappointed in the hope which I had entertained that the invading army would be unable to draw its supplies from Bruinsburg or Grand Gulf, and be driven back before crossing the Big Black, it now remained only to increase as far as possible the relieving army, and depend upon it to break the investment.
The ability of the Federals to send reenforcements was so much greater than ours that the necessity for prompt action was fully realized; therefore, when General Johnston on May 9th was ordered to proceed to Mississippi, he was directed to take from the Army of Tennessee three thousand good troops, and informed that he would find reenforcements from General Beauregard.
On May 12th a dispatch was sent to him at Jackson, stating, In addition to the five thousand men originally ordered from Charleston [Beauregard], about four thousand more will follow.
I fear more can not be spared to you.
On May 22d I sent the following dispatch to General Bragg, at Tullahoma, Tenness