reaty; or any slaves or other private property.
Persistent efforts were made to avoid the return of deported slaves, and it was attempted to put them in the category of artillery which had been removed before the exchange of ratification.
John Quincy Adams, first as United States minister to England, and subsequently as United States Secretary of State, conducted with great vigor and earnestness a long correspondence to maintain the true construction of the treaty as recognizing and guarding ved, to return the former, but that the reasons did not apply to the latter, for, he proceeds to say, Private property, not having been subject to legitimate capture with the places, was not liable to the reason of limitation.
In the same letter Adams writes: Merchant-vessels and effects captured on the high-seas are, by the laws of war between civilized nations, lawful prize, and by the capture become the property of the captors. . . . But, as by the same usage of civilized nations, private p
ods's, are, I suppose, at Corinth.
One regiment of Hardee's division (Lieutenant-Colonel Patton commanding) is moving by cars to-day (March 20th), and Statham's brigade (Crittenden's division). The brigade will halt at Iuka, the regiment at Burnsville; Cleburne's brigade, Hardee's division, except the regiment, at Burnsville; and Carroll's brigade, Crittenden's division, and Helm's cavalry, at Tuscumbia; Bowen's brigade at Courtland; Breckinridge's brigade here; the regiments of cavalry of Adams and Wharton on the opposite bank of the river; Scott's Louisiana regiment at Pulaski, sending forward supplies; Morgan's cavalry at Shelbyville, ordered on.
Tomorrow Breckinridge's brigade will go to Corinth, then Bowen's. When these pass Tuscumbia and Iuka, transportation will be ready there for the other troops to follow immediately from those points, and, if necessary, from Burnsville.
The cavalry will cross and move forward as soon as their trains can be passed over the railroad-brid
the power based on necessity
the system of legislation devised
how permitted by the law of nations
views of Wheaton; of J. Q. Adams; of Secretary Marcy; of Chief Justice Marshall
nature of confiscation and proceedings
provisions of the acts
confiscation of property within reach
This exemption extends even to the case of an absolute and unqualified conquest of the enemy's country.
Elements of International Law, p. 421.
John Quincy Adams, in a letter to the Secretary of State dated August 22, 1815, says:
Our object is the restoration of all property, including slaves, which, by the usages of their existence, or did he seek to cover up his violation of them by a deceptive use of language?
It may not be unseasonable to repeat here the words of John Quincy Adams in his letter of August 22, 1815, as above stated:
Our object is the restoration of all the property, including slaves, which, by the usages of war among
he governments of those countries to alleviate it. Instead, however, of adopting those measures required in the exercise of justice to the Confederacy, and which would have been sustained by the law of nations, by declaring the blockade ineffective, as it really was, they sought, through informal applications to Seward, the Secretary of State for the United States, to obtain opportunities for an increased exportation of cotton from the Confederacy.
This is explained by Seward in a letter to Adams, the Minister at London, dated July 28, 1862, in which he writes as follows:
The President has given respectful consideration to the desire informally expressed to me by the Governments of Great Britain and France for some further relaxation of the blockade in favor of that trade.
They are not rejected, but are yet held under consideration, with a view to ascertain more satisfactorily whether they are really necessary, and whether they can be adopted without such serious detriment to o
gland, and that others would go to France, to purchase arms; this fact was communicated to the British Foreign Office, which interposed no objection.
Yet, in October of the same year, Earl Russell entertained the complaint of the United States minister in London that the Confederate States were importing contraband of war from the island of Nassau, directed inquiry into the matter, and obtained a report from the authorities of the island denying the allegations, which report was enclosed to Adams, and received by him as satisfactory evidence to dissipate the suspicion thrown upon the authorities by that unwarrantable act.
So, too, when the Confederate government purchased in Great Britain, as a neutral country (with strict observance both of the law of nations and the municipal law of Great Britain), vessels which were subsequently armed and commissioned as vessels of war after they had been far removed from English waters, the British government, in violation of its own laws, and i
foreign countries, 312.
Operations in the West, 323.
Upholding of state rights, 493.
Congressional act concerning treatment of prisoners, 495.
Clothing of Confederate soldiers in Northern prisons, 512.
Statistics of soldiers paroled at close of war, 592.
Conference between Lincoln and representaties of border states, 155.
Confiscation act of 1861, 5-6, 8, 291.
Excerpt from Wheaton on confiscation of private property, 138-39.
Extract from letter of John Quincy Adams on private property, 139.
Extract from letter of Marcy on private property, 139.
Words of John Marshall on private property, 139.
Excerpts, 140-43, 148, 149.
Congress (Confederate States of America) Removal to Richmond, 3.
Acts of 3rd session, 5.
(Federal), grant of men and supplies to subjugate the South, 3.
Refusal to negotiate for peaceful settlement, 3, 4-5.
Confiscation law, 5-6, 8.
Usurpation of power, 136, 157-62, 291.
Legislation for abolition of slavery, 137-49.