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bottle, and the depression of the lever h g drives the cork into the neck of the bottle. The reverse motions of the lever and treadle release the bottle. See bottling-machine. Father Penguin, a monk of the monastery of Hautvilliers (died in 1715), seems to have been the inventor of sparkling champagne. The wine of the country had been celebrated for centuries, but the old Benedictine discovered the art of making it effervescent, and secured it by a cork and string. Masteroman's corkingireplace. These jambs were square in the old English fireplaces. In some of the Louvre fireplaces the jambs have an angle of about 45° These were probably erected about 1750, by Gabriel, under the orders of M. de Mavigny. Gauger had previously (1715) given to the moving a parabolic curve. Count Rumford invented or adopted the inclined coving, having an angle of 135° with the fire-back, to radiate heat into the room. Cow. 1. (Mining.) A wooden wedge to jam against the barrel of a gin
mada by the Laird of Melgim, near the Isle of Man, but not sufficient to pay. Previous unsuccessful attempts had been made by Colquhoun, of Glasgow, who depended for air upon a leathern tube reaching above the surface of the water. Dr. Halley, in 1715, improved the diving-bell by a contrivance for supplying it with fresh air by means of barrels lowered from the vessel, from which the bell was suspended, the foul air escaping by a cock. This also allowed the bell to be completely filled with aiaming machines for roofing have a number of consecutive pairs of rollers which are run along the upturned edges of the adjacent sheets so as to lap one over the other, bend the two and press the folded-over part against the standing part. In Fig. 1715 a shows the machine in isometric projection, a series of transverse sections being made to show the different pairs of rollers in the succession. b shows one of the rollers detached and also sectioned to exhibit the structure. c d e f g h is a s
About 1658, Sir John Winter invented a coke furnace or fire-cage (C) which was placed on a close box about eleven inches high, in front of which was an opening d, fitted with a door, which always kept closed except when the ashes were being removed. A pipe a communicated with the external air, and was closed, when required, by a damper. When the valve was opened, a brisk draft urged the fire. The flue was closed by an iron plate or register at c. Fireplaces. Cardinal Polignac, in 1715, published under the name of another man (Gauger's Treatise on the art of warming rooms ) an account of improved mechanical arrangements for fireplaces. This is shown at E in the figure. The hollow metallic case forming the back of the chimney is divided into three or more caliducts which are not in contact with the back wall. The jambs are iron plates, solid backed. The channel a conducts the external air into the caliducts, which form a fire-back, and the warmed air escapes into the roo
opper79.9 Zinc13.05 Nickel6.09 Iron.28 Tin.09 The latter two are, perhaps, merely accidental ingredients. See alloy. Or′phe-on. (Music.). A musical instrument of the melodeon order. Or′re-ry. A planetary machine to illustrate and explain the motions of the heavenly bodies. Its invention appears to have been coeval with the construction of the clepsydra and other horological automata. It was so called from the Earl of Orrery, who bore the expense of one constructed in 1715 by Rowley, after a pattern devised by the clockmaker George Graham. See planetarium; Tellurian. The heliocentric theory was held by the ancient Egyptians, and taught by them to Pythagoras. The theory did not flourish in Greece. Plato mentions it. A few scholars, like Nicolas (probably of Laodicea, fourth century A. D.), entertained it during the vast intervening period, and it was eventually revived by Copernicus. When the Spaniards conquered Peru, they found the natives in posses<
powder, so that it had been used for hair-powder and went by the name of Schnorr's white earth. It proved to be kaolin. The French porcelain works were first established at St. Cloud, in 1695, by Louis XIV.; at Vincennes, 1740; removed to Sevres, 1786. The Meissen, Saxony, porcelain manufactory was established by Augustus II., Elector of Saxony, in 1710. Botticher invented the hard paste in 1706; the red ware like jasper, in 1711: white porcelain, in 1709; the perfect, white kind, in 1715. He died in 1719. Heroldt introduced gilding and painting in 1720; modeled groups, in 1731; porcelain made in England, at Bow, in 1698. Wedgwood ware was first patented, 1762. Porcelain may be distinguished from the coarser earthenware as a pottery which is fine grained, compact, very hard, and somewhat translucid. The latter quality is derived from its partial vitrification. It has various colors. Porcelain is divided into hard and tender. The former is made in Germany and in Asi
n from time to time through the plugged opening d and run into molds. See also arsenic-furnace, Fig. 373, page 162; condenser, Fig. 1420, page 608. Subma-rine′ Ap-pa-ra′tus. A device to enable persons to work under water. The diving-bell is said to have been used among the Greeks in the time of Aristotle. It was first introduced into Western Europe near the beginning of the sixteenth century, but was not made practically available for use at considerable depths until Dr. Halley, in 1715, invented the method of displacing the water which entered the lower part of the bell by submerging casks containing air to a level a little below the bell, and discharging the air from them into it by admitting water at their bottoms by means of cocks. He also contrived a headpiece, open at the lower part, which enabled a diver to leave the bell and make explorations outside, being supplied with air through a flexible tube leading into the bell. Spalding subsequently divided the bell into