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pothetical radical of formic acid). Its discovery is claimed by Soubeiran, Guthrie, and Liebig, whose claims have about an even date, 1831. The verdict seems to have settled in favor of the former. Its first use as an anaesthetic was by Dr. Simpson of Edinburgh, 1847. Hydrate of chloral has recently become quite unpleasantly prominent in the list of anodynes, sedatives, and hypnotics. Ether was known to the earliest chemists. The discovery of its use as an anaesthetic was made by Dr. Jackson or Dr. Morton of Boston, in 1846. A contest ensued between the parties to prove priority, and was much debated in the scientific journals of the day. In an application to Congress for a remunerative appropriation of $100,000, the rep- resentatives of Dr. Wells came in with a claim to the first invention. The enterprise failed, but mankind owes a debt of gratitude to each. Amylene is a colorless liquid obtained by distilling fusel oil with chloride of zinc. It was discovered by M. B
rom the body of the work. Fust and Shoeffer's Psalter, 1457, had initial letters and flourished lines printed in two colors, red and blue. The art soon became common, and towards the end of the fifteenth century imitations of pen-andink sketches on a colored ground were made by celebrated artists. This was followed by drawings on blocks in regular sets for separate colors. Albert Durer engraved such blocks; Parmigiano, Titian, and Raffaelle made designs on blocks for the purpose. Jackson started a paper-hanging factory at Chelsea, England, 1720 – 1754, the designs being printed in oil by wooden blocks. He appears to have been unsuccessful in some details and in the speculation. The art was adopted and improved by a succession of persons in England and elsewhere; Skippe and Savage of the former, and Gubitz of Berlin, adding considerably to the eminence already attained. Savage ground the various pigments of the painter into inks, and imitated water-color drawing succe
ne′. See Eyeletingmachine. Eye-piece. (Optics.) An eye-piece, or power, as it is sometimes called, is the lens or combination of lenses used in microscopes or telescopes to examine the aerial image formed at the focus of the objectglass. — Brande. Eye-pieces may be, — 1. Positive (Ramsdens). 2. Negative (Huyghenian). 3. Diagonal. 4. Solar (Dawes). 5. Terrestrial or erecting. Eye-piece mi-crom′e-ter. A graduated slip of glass introduced through slits in the eye-piece tube, so as to occupy the center of the field. Adapted by Jackson. Eye-rim. A circular single eye-glass, adapted to be held to its place by the contraction of the orbital muscles. Eye-speculum. Eye-spec′u-lum. (Surgical.) An instrument for dilating the eyelids, to expose the exterior portions of the eye and its adjuncts. Eye-splice. (Nautical.) A splice made by turning the end of a rope back on itself and splicing the end to the standing part,
gitudinal Pin. 8,637R. S. LawrenceJan. 6, 1852. 11,157J. D. GreeneJune 27, 1854. 13,691H. B. WeaverOct. 16, 1855. *14,034J. C. SmithJan. 1, 1856. *27,374J. D. MooreMar. 6, 1860. 4. Rotating on Parallel Longitudinal Pin.—Continued. No.Name.Date. 27,778C. CoxApr. 10, 1860. 29,340R. F. CookJuly 24, 1860. 31,473D. MooreFeb. 19, 1861. *32,316L. SiebertMay 14, 1861. 35,241W. JohnstonMay 13, 1862. 37,025Armstrong and TaylorNov. 25, 1862. *37,854R. F. CookMar. 10, 1863. 37,937Jackson and GoodremMay 17, 1863. 42,227A. H. RoweApr. 5, 1864. 43,571Francis ClarkJuly 19, 1864. 43,840W. H. ElliotAug. 16, 1864. 44,868W. JohnstonNov. 1, 1864. *45,361L. TriplettDec. 6, 1864. 49,057M. L. M. DescouturesJuly 25, 1865. 50,760H. F. WheelerOct. 31, 1865. 55,752H. F. WheelerJune 19, 1866. 58,064W. J. ChristySept. 18, 1866. 73,494Boyd and TylerJan. 21, 1868. 88,540Boyd and TylerApr. 6, 1869. 103,694F. WessonMay 31, 1870. 106,083Simpson, Gray, and RomansAug. 2, 1870. 112,803
eats are worked in a day of ten hours. See puddling-furnace. Mechanical Puddlers. Griffith1865 McCarty1852 Berard1867 Harrison1854 Bloomhall1872 Bennett1864 Heatley1873 Gove1858 Dormoy1869 Riley1873 Danes1873 Sellers1873 Wood1870 Heatley1869 Revolving Puddlers. BeadlestoneDec. 9, 1857 HeatonAug. 13, 1867 AllenApr. 14, 1868 YatesFeb. 23, 1869 DanksNov. 24, 1868 DanksOct. 20, 1869 YatesFeb. 23, 1869 See also patents to Boynton, Allen, Jenkins, Smith, 1871; Jackson, Goodrich, Richardson, et al., Davies, Post, 1872; Jones, Danks, 1873. Pud′dle-rolls. The first, or roughing, rolls of a rolling-mill. Invented by Henry Cort, England, and patented in 1783. The loop, or ball of puddled iron, after a preliminary forging, is drawn out by passing through the puddle-rolls, instead of being extended under the hammer. It is then a rough bar. The rolls which bring the iron to definite merchantable shape are known as the merchant train. The process
hain-stitch. 1. One Thread. (a.) Bearded Needle. No.Name.Date. 7,622ThimonnierSept. 3, 1850. 15,695GardnerSept. 9, 1856. 18,904HubbardDec. 22, 1857. 21,234JacksonAug. 17, 1858. 22,17HookNov. 30, 1858. 23,285BoyntonMar. 15, 1859. 24,027HookMay. 17, 1859. 24,061SpencerMay. 17, 1859. 24,973JenksAug. 2, 1859. 25,013Harr1857. 18,350Nettleton et al.Oct. 6, 1857. 19,535SangsterMar. 2, 1858. 19,723SangsterMar. 23, 1858. 20,684SnowJune 22, 1858. 20,688BarnesJune 29, 1858. 21,299JacksonAug. 24, 1858. (Reissue.)599RobertsonSept. 14, 1858. 21,833HubbardOct. 19, 1858. 1. (f.) Stationary Hooks or Guides for holding Loop in Path of Needle. 134,863Goodes et al.July 26, 1859. 31,628RoseMar. 5, 1861. 32,023BurrApr. 9, 1861. 33,029CaseAug. 13, 1861. (Reissue.)1,616Goodes et al.Feb. 9, 1864. 41,923JacksonMar. 15, 1864. 50,989EmersonNov. 14, 1864. 79,393ReynoldsJune 30, 1868. 110,739CleminshawJan. 3, 1871. 111,059HelwigJan. 17, 1871. 128,363CleminshawJune 25, 1
the preservative material by immersion, and those in which the material is forced into the pores in a vaporiform state. The first of these processes appears to date back no farther than the last century; the latter is of still more recent introduction. As early as 1740, Fagol, a Frenchman, experimented with solutions of alum, sulphate of iron, and other substances, in which he immersed the wood for several days. In 1756, Haller recommended the use of vegetable oil for this purpose. Jackson, in 1767, proposed to employ a solution of sea-salt, to which sulphate of iron and magnesia, alum, lime, and potash, were to be added. Pallas, 1779, proposed to mineralize wood immersion first in solution of copperas and afterward in milk of lime. Dr. Hales recommended steeping in solution of sulphate of copper (blue vitriol), and coating with oil of tar; for which Dr. Fordyce substituted sulphate of iron; this was tried with good results in the West Indies Colonel Congreve, in 1784,