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voir, where it is reserved for use in any suitable engine. Wilhelm's air-pump. The efficient force depends upon the height of the column of water, and the consequent force with which the air was ejected by the water which displaced it. Jameson, March 13, 1858. The air is compressed (or rarefied by the inversion of the process) by the successive action of pistons in cylinders connected Patric's air-compressor. by pipes, whose valves govern the direction of the flow. Each piston ilops sensible heat as its volume is diminished by compression, and if it be used for cooling purposes, as in ice-making, its preliminary cooling before it is allowed to expand will make it more effective in absorbing sensible heat when freed. Jameson's air-compressor. Arthur, July 25, 1865. An air-pump is combined with a series of air-vessels by means of pipes and stop-cocks, or valves, in such a manner that the air compressed into one air-vessel may be used to supply the pump when comp
iron, for the purpose of detaching and removing oxidized substances. Krupp uses spiegeleisen. Schmit, of the Troy Bessemer works, recommends ferro-manganese in small quantities and in solid pieces, as a recarburizer. Clay's process of making wrought-iron direct from the ore (English, 1843) consists in sifting rich ground ore, mixed with 4/10 weight of coal, into the chamber of a furnace where it is puddled and balled; after this it is shingled and rolled in the ordinary manner. Jameson's process consists in exposing the calcined and crushed ores in a series of deoxidizing chambers, where it is exposed to the heat of the burning gases which come from the furnace below. It is pushed from the floor of one chamber to another, and in the last chamber is exposed to hydrogen generated by the decomposition of a jet of steam injected upon it to aid in ridding it of sulphur and phosphorus. Thence to the charcoal bed and refining chamber, where the loop is formed, and whence it is