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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 140 0 Browse Search
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 2 0 Browse Search
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our present information extends, was that by Dr. Papin, of Blois, France, about 1695. His experime water-elevator. It does not appear that Dr. Papin tried the direct pressure of a body of air uAir′--chamber for pumps. This was used by Dr. Papin of France about 1695, but had been describedis instrument has been much improved by Hooke, Papin, Hawksbee, and Boyle. Many varieties of strucat the proper times, as we see in Worcester's, Papin's, and Savery's engines. The same plan was adheric pressure seems to have originated with Dr. Papin, of Blois, in France, about the end of the svived in the 130 years that intervened between Papin and Medhurst, who again urged the project ab impel the carriage. In this he differed from Papin and Medhurst, who proposed a plenum in the reaopened in 1865. This realizes the dreams of Papin and the hopes of Medhurst, nearly two hundred gasket of linen being used. It is a form of Dr. Papin's digester, and should have a safety-valve. [4 more...]
counterbalance the weight of a valve, and enable it to be lifted more readily. The electric balance is a form of electrometer. The hygrometric balance is a form of hygrometer, in which the absorption of moisture destroys the equipoise of a balanced beam. The hydrostatic balance is a modification of the ordinary balance, for the purpose of obtaining specific gravities. The steam-balance is the ordinary safety-valve which has a weighted lever. It was invented by the illustrious Dr. Papin, of Blois. The torsion-balance is a delicate electrometer, in which a horizontal bar is suspended from a wire which is twisted by the magnetic attraction or repulsion. The specific-gravity balance was due to the discovery of Archimedes. The Book of the balance of wisdom, by AlKhazini, of the twelfth century, is a treatise on the specific-gravity balance, which he credits to Archimedes, narrating the story of Hiero and the Syracusan goldsmith; and which, as he says, is founded upon
tman connect in the usual way with the crank and driving-shaft. Parsey's compressed-air engine. The project has lately been revived for impelling street-cars. Under Air as a means of transmitting power, has been noticed the attempt of Dr. Papin of Blois to run a pumping-engine by compressed air conducted by pipes from a condensing engine situated at the distance of a mile and driven by a fall of water. For some reason, friction and leakage probably, the doctor failed. For the applcess of curing meat. Cor′nish-boil′er. The cylindrical-flue boiler of Smeaton, who did so much to increase the economy of working steam. The cut shows the modern form with the throttle over the steam-dome b; the safety-valve e, invented by Papin; the man-hole d, gage-cocks, steam-gage c, etc. Corn′ish-en′gine. A form of single-acting condensing steam-engine used especially in the copper and tin mines of Cornwall, but also used as a pumping-engine for watersupply in very many place
for determining the rate of diffusion of different gases. It consists of a graduated tube closed at one end by plasterof-paris, — a substance which, when moderately dry, possesses the required porosity. — Thomas. Di′gest-er. Invented by Dr. Papin, about 1690 Digesters. A strong boiler a with a tightly fitting cover b, closed by a screw c, and used to expose food to a heat above 212°. By a certain increment of heat the gelatine is separated from the phosphate of lime of the bones; the earthy particles sinking to the bottom. It has a safety-valve on top to allow steam to escape when it begins to acquire a dangerous tension. It was in contriving this boiler that Dr. Papin invented the safety-valve. The lard and other grease tanks used for workingup poor carcasses and the offal of slaughter-houses belong to this class of apparatus. Thousands of carcasses of cattle and sheep too poor for the market are thus worked up yearly in the United States, and the lard-tank is a
ched a hight of 80 feet. An English patent appears of the date of 1632 to Thomas Grant, and one to John Van der Heyden (or Heide), of Amsterdam, 1663. He is credited with having brought the machine to the present modern form of hand-engine. The brothers Van der Heyden appear to have been the inventors of the leathern hose in detachable sections. In 1699, a patent was granted in France to Duperrier for a pompe portative for extinguishing fires; to this Perrault added the air-chamber. Papin also adopted it. Hooks and fire-ladders must be assumed to have been long in use, but come into historic notice about this time. Fire-plugs were laid down in the streets of London in 1710; previous to that time the water was carried in buckets and poured into the fire-engine reservoirs. Much attention was drawn to the matter of fireengines by the disastrous fire of London in 1666, and an act of Common Council was passed shortly after the event, compelling parishes and incorporated compan
rst to use this power; Hugyhens applied if in a cylinder so that the atmospheric pressure might force a piston downward when the vacuum was thus formed beneath it. Papin substituted a bell-valve over the air-eduction port, for the collapsible leathern tubes of Huyghens. In 1791 Barber took an English patent for a gasengine in wh principle, but used a cylinder for his explosive chamber, the vacuum being utilized by the resulting atmospheric pressure upon the piston moving in the cylinder. Papin substituted a bell-valve over a hole in the middle of the piston for the leather tubes used by Huyghens. In 1791, Barker patented a gas-engine having the main fspheric air being introduced through different conductors into a cylinder, in which the gas was exploded, the effect being to drive a piston. See gas-engine. Papin's apparatus consisted of a tube closed at bottom and having a valved piston below which a charge of gunpowder was exploded. The idea was, that the sudden blast of
cheese-press having a screw for quick motion and a compound lever and suspended weight for continuous pressure. The nut of the screw is boxed in the short lever, which is of the second class. The long lever is of the same class. Duplex lever-punch. Le′ver-punch. A punch operated by the rolling motion of two cam-faced levers which are approached by a screw. Le′ver-valve. A safety-valve kept in its seat by the pressure of a lever with an adjustable weight. The invention of Dr. Papin of Blois. In locomotives a spring is used at the end of the lever instead of a weight; the pressure being regulated by a screw and indicated on a brass plate. Under ordinary circumstances the valve-lever has a number of weights, which are added as occasion requires, or the weight is shifted in or out on the lever. See safety-valve. Lev-i-ga′tion. A process of rubbing a moist material between two hard surfaces, as in grinding pigments and printer's ink. Trituration is d<
int. See piston; piston-packing. In the atmospheric engines of Papin, Savary, and Newcomen, the piston was packed air-tight by means of Ctesibus, 150 B. C. See Spiritalia Heronis. It is believed that Papin's pistons were of wood, and that Cartwright was the first to use a he water therein. Pneu-mat′ic tube. To the fertile brain of Dr. Papin of Blois, who lived about the end of the seventeenth century, we t which appear to have been paddle-wheels of some kind. In 1690, Papin describes oars fixed to an axis, a pinion on the latter being engagair-pump of Otto Guericke of Magdeburg, and in the steamengine of Dr. Papin of Blois. If we knew better what the philosophers of Alexandria p was not entirely laid away for fifteen or sixteen centuries. Dr. Papin was the first, so far as we know, to suggest raising water by meaery by raising water to turn a water-wheel, which is all nonsense. Papin's was an engine. See steam-engine. A number of large water-rais
arquis of WorcesterEnglishFour-way cock1655 Dr. PapinFrenchSteam water-elevator (separation of the, and returned by atmospheric pressure)1695 Dr. PapinFrenchAir-chamber (on the water eduction to cto impossible to exaggerate the merits of M Denys Papin of Blois, but it will not be safe to warrane Aeolipile of Hero; the boilers of Worcester, Papin, and Savery. The flue wound spirally around the precursor of the piston, also invented by Dr. Papin; we have, however, seen that Hero used it ineature may also be noticed in the apparatus of Papin. The water in contact with the float was to sstigation of the history of the machine. In Papin's engine (Fig. 5656), the boiler was connectedavery's apparatus, so that it is singular that Papin should have missed this point, which gave valuy motion was long a puzzle to mechanicians. Papin tried to avoid the problem, suggesting the dirded it in his first patent, but neither he nor Papin accomplished anything in that line. Papin s[28 more...]
f mechanical devices through which the valves of a steam or other engine are operated. These are shown in the various engines to which they are specially applied. See cut-off; link-motion; steam-hammer; steam-pump; portable engine; Cornish En-Gine; draining-engine; stationary engine; oscillating-En-Gine; etc. See list under steam-engine; and also list under valve. The first means for shutting and opening the passages in the pipes of steam-engines were cocks, as we see in Worcester's, Papin's, Savery's, and Newcomen's; and these were all worked by hand and required close attention. A boy named Humphrey Potter being in charge of the cocks of one of Newcomen's pumping-engines, and desiring time for play (it is said), managed to fasten the lever-handles of the spigots by means of rods and string to the walking-beam of the engine, so that each recurrent motion of the beam effected the change required. This was the first automatic valve-motion, and was afterward improved by Beigh