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z established the Phototype Company of New York, and his efforts were nearly identical with Pretsch, excepting, perhaps, that he successfully threw down a deposit of copper on the swelled and still moist gelatine. Photo-li-thogra-phy. A mode of producing by photographic means designs upon stone, from which impressions may be obtained in the ordinary lithographic press. Indications of efforts in this direction may be credited to the late Joseph Dixon of Jersey City, and to Lewis of Dublin, about 1841. Dixon's attempt was analogous to Poitevin's process, as described hereafter, and Lewis's was an ingenious modification of the daguerreotype process, in which a thin surface of silver applied to an underlying resinous coating was so treated subsequent to the photographic image being produced thereon, by exposure to light and mercurial fumes, as to lay bare portions of the greasy or resinous matter, which was then susceptible of transfer. No specimens or contemporaneous descript
tor, 96 inches; at latitude 19° 80 inches; at latitude 45°, 29 inches at latitude 60°, 17 inches. According to Professor Thomson, the average number of days on which rain falls is, between latitudes 12° and 43° north, 78; between latitudes 43° and 50° north, 103, between latitudes 50° and 60° north, 161. Local circumstances, however, largely interfere with this; at Rome, for instance, there are but 64 days of rain in the year, and at Padua 120. London has 220 dry days in the year, and Dublin but 150. The number of days of heavy rain is nearly the same at both places, — from 16 to 32 annually. Dr. Heberden found that on top of Westminster Abbey, from July, 1766, to July, 1767, but 12.099 inches of rain fell; on top of a lower building near by 18.139 inches; and at the ground, 22.608 inches. At York, as determined by Phillips in 1834-35, the amount at an elevation of 213 feet was 14.963 inches; 44 feet, 19.852 inches; at the ground, 25.706 inches. At the Paris Observ
to each person. Detroit83 gallons daily to each person. Jersey City99 gallons daily to each person. Buffalo61 gallons daily to each person. Cleveland40 gallons daily to each person. Columbus30 gallons daily to each person. Montreal, Canada55 gallons daily to each person. Toronto77 gallons daily to each person. London, England29 gallons daily to each person. Liverpool23 gallons daily to each person. Glasgow50 gallons daily to each person. Edinburgh38 gallons daily to each person. Dublin25 gallons daily to each person. Paris28 gallons daily to each person. Turin22 gallons daily to each person. Toulouse26 gallons daily to each person. Lyons20 gallons daily to each person. Leghorn30 gallons daily to each person. Berlin20 gallons daily to each person. Hamburg33 gallons daily to each person. The first water-works in the United States were planned and constructed by Mr. John Christopher Christensen, at Bethlehem, Pa., in 1762. The machinery consisted of three singleac