Poisoned weapons are used by the Negroes, Bushmen, and Hottentots of Africa; in the Indian Archipelago, New Hebrides, and New Caledonia.
They are employed in Bootan, Assam, by the Stiens of Cambodia, and formerly by the Moors of Mogadore.
The Parthians and Scythians used them in ancient times.
The composition of the poison varies in different races; the Bushmen, Hottentots, and others, using the venomous secretions of serpents and caterpillars.
In the Bosjesman country, Southern Africa, the natives hunt the puff-adders, in order to extract the poison.
They creep upon the reptile unawares, and break its back at a single blow.
The poison-glands are then extracted; the venom is very thick, like glycerine, and has a faint acid taste.
This is mixed, on a flat stone, with an acrid poisonous gun, called parki ; after being worked until it becomes of the consistency of thick glue, it is spread over the barbed head of the arrow and for about two inches up its point.
microscope, to form an opaque background when the said object is to be viewed as illuminated by light from above.
A potato, an egg, an apple, or a small gourd, to stretch a portion of a stocking while being darned.
One of large size for carrying a woolen yarn in stopping holes in knitted or woven fabrics.
A missile spear or javelin much in use among the ancients, and yet seen among many of the more barbarous nations.
The Caffres of South Africa and the aboriginal inhabitants of Australia are very expert in the use of the assegai. The darts in use among the ancients were of two kinds, namely, spearheaded (that is, without barbs), or bearded.
The former were often attached to a long cord, enabling the thrower to recover his weapon after having thrown it. Dart-heads are usually made of iron, but among savage nations flints, sea-shells, fishbones, and other hard substances, have been employed; and among some of the aboriginal inhab<
Ezekiel records that ivory was used to ornament the Phoenician galleys.
Beds inlaid or veneered with ivory were used by those who, as Amos says, are at case in Zion, that lie upon beds of ivory and stretch themselves upon their couches.
Two hunting inscriptions, one of which principally records the elephant hunts of Ptolemy Philadelphus, were discovered and copied by Lepsius from the colossi of Aboo Simbel.
Since ancient times elephants have withdrawn more to the south in Eastern Africa also.
According to the testimony of Polybius, when African and Indian elephants encountered each other on fields of battle, the sight, the smell, and the cries of the larger and stronger Indian elephants drove the African ones to flight.
The latter were never employed as war elephants in such large numbers as were used in Asiatic expeditions, where Khandragupta had assembled 9,000, the powerful king of the Prasii 6,000, and Akbar as many.
The Numidian Metellus had 142 elephants kill
（Fabric.) A kind of silk cloth.
（Surgical.) A lever for raising a depressed portion of the skull.
It belongs to the trephine case.
An embankment to restrain water, and of a magnitude such as those of the Mississippi, Ganges, Holland, Po, Thames, etc.
The principal rivers noted for the periodical rising of their waters are the Nile, the Ganges, the Euphrates, and the Mississippi.
Of these, the Nile, which flows from the mountains and lakes of Central Africa, begins to rise in June, and by the middle of August attains an elevation of 24 to 28 feet in the upper country, and less towards the mouth, the inundation flooding the cultivatable valley of Egypt.
The Egyptian embankments are described by Herodotus and Strabo.
The Ganges, flowing from the Himalayas, rises 32 feet from April to August, and creates a flood of 100 miles in width.
The Euphrates, from Mount Ararat, rises 12 feet between March and June, and covers the Babylonian plains.
60931 miles = 1 kilometre.
GermanyMile (15 to 1°）8,101
Leghornor food and for burning in lamps.
Are strung on sticks by the natives, and so used as candles.
CarapaCarapa guineensisW. Africa, etcSeeds afford oil used by the natives for burning and anointing.
In S France made into soap.
CocoaCocos nuciferaHoOne of the purest of vegetable oils.
Used in the arts and for salads.
In Italy is used in lamps.
PalmElais guineensisW. AfricaThe fruit affords the palm-oil used in candle and soap making.
PinePinus sylvestrisEurope, etcLeaves afford an oil whicndia for cooking, burning, anointing, etc. Elsewhere used in lamps and for making soap.
Shea butter or oilBassia parkiiW. AfricaSeeds afford an oil used in Europe for candle and soap making, etc.
Souari-nutCaryocar nuciferum, etc.South AmericaCont
coating, etc.; is of the highest value in mechanics and manufactures.
Ficus elastica, etcEast Indies
Urceola elasticaE. Indian Islands
CopalHymenaea (various)W. Africa, E. Indies, South AmericaUsed for varnish.
DammarDammara australisNew Zealand.Used in making varnish.
Obtained from Cowdi pine.
Found where the tree has formermacy.
GambogeCambogia guttaCambogia, Siam, etcYellow.
Used as a pigment and as a gold lacquer, etc.
GeraniumMonsonia burmanniS. AfricaProduces much resin.
Found in the sands about the Cape of Good Hope.
The resin is produced after the death of the plant.
Gum-dragon(See Dragon's blood.)
Gutta and as a solvent for reins.
Turpentine (Strasburg）Abies piceaEurope
Turpentine (Venice）Larix europoeaEurope
Gum-arabicAcaia arabica et veraN. Africa, Asia, etc.Finest of the gums.
Soluble in water.
Gum (British)Solanum tuberosumBritain, etc.Torrefied potato-starch.
ar to those which had led to their acquaintance with the Indian algebra.
Persians were employed at that period as revenue-collectors on the Indus; and the use of Indian numbers became general among the Arab revenue-officers, and extended to Northern Africa, opposite to the coast of Sicily.
An Oriental form of saber.
It is generally made much heavier toward the point than the saber of Western nations.
（Architecture.) The profile or section of a covered with leather, and studded with metal; it was 4 feet by 2 1/2.
The shield of the ancient Briton was round and of basketwork.
The Norman shield was kite or pear shaped.
In the time of Edward IV.
it had become triangular.
In South Africa it is made of rhinoceros hide.
The shield fell out of use when the broadsword was exchanged for the small sword and rapier.
The introduction of fire-arms has farther changed the tactics, and the shield is a thing of the past with civilized<
ornRhamnus (numerous)Europe, etcAffords dyeing materials.
Sap green from the berry, and yellow from the bark.
Campeachy wood(See Logwood.)
CamwoodBaphia nitidaW. AfricaCalled also barwood.
Affords the red dye used for English bandana handkerchiefs.
CatechuAcacia catechuE. IndiesA resin-like extract obtained from the bark, wooduba, etcA bark.
Used to tie up cigars.
DaphneDaphne papyraceaIndiaFibrous bark.
Used for making paper, etc.
Date-palmPhoenix dactyliferaN. Africa and interior desertsPlaited work, baskets, from the leaves.
Esparto-grassLygaeum spartumS. Europe, etcCoarse.
Matting, cordage, baskets, paper, etc.
Fan-palm lanicaCeylonResembles and is used as a substitute for flax.
PalmVery numerousTropicsSpecies very numerous: all afford fiber of some kind.
PalmiteJuncus serratusS. AfricaA rush.
Used for plaiting, thatching, baskets, etc.
Palmyra-palmBorassus flabelliformusTropical AsiaLeaves made into mats, baskets, carpets, hats, umbrellas, et
latanus occidentalisEastern U. S.Hard, white, coarse.
Sycamore (Fig)Ficus sycomorusEgyptLight.
Cases for mummies in ancient times.
larch).Larix americanaN and N. e. States.
Teak (African）Oldfieldia africanaW. AfricaHard.
Railway-carriages, shipbuilding, etc.
Teak (Indian）Tectona grandisIndiaHard.
ThornCrataegus punctataEastern U. S.Hard, light-red.
Toon-woodCedrela toonaIndiaFurniture and cabinet-work.
Toqua, and is tuned in intervals called lu, twelve in the compass of an octave.
The stones are suspended by strings and tuned by chipping or grinding to a size or thickness.
Such were used among the Peruvians before the conquest.
Also used in Central Africa and Angola.
（Nautical.) Blocks in the scores of the stern-post to keep the rudder from lifting off its bearings.
Paper made of wood reduced to a pulp by mechanical or chemical means; more usually by a co
iters of the day.
Columella (50 B. C.) condemns yoking by the horns, and states that they can pull better by the neck and breast, which is true.
His directions for the treatment of oxen are full and excellent.
In Tuscany, oxen are guided by reins attached to rings passing through the cartilage between the nostrils.
In Africa, a straight stick takes the place of the ring, and the ends of the bridle-rein are attached to it. The ox is the riding and pack animal of Central Africa.
Fig. 7388 is a view of the cheetah, or hunting-leopard cart, from which he is let loose when the prey is seen.
The drawing is taken from a model made in the Bombay Presidency, India, and exhibited at the World's Fair, London, 1851.
It shows the heavy tongue, which forms a seat for the driver.
2. The neck-yoke, by which the fore end of the tongue is suspended from the hames, or collars of a span of horses.
3. A frame to fit the shoulders and neck of a person,