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Hoosac and Mont Cenis Tunnels in driving the boring-machines is referred to under tunnel. Its use in the Govan Colliery, Scotland, is referred to under air-compressing machines. See also air-engine, compressed. Its use as a liquid elevator is considehe is a great anticipator. Glazebrook's second patent, 1801, has a refrigeratory, whose use is not, as in Randolph's (Scotland, 1856), to cool the pump wherein the air is condensed (see compressed-air engine), but is used for depriving the escapinhe air admitted to the sides alternately, the induction and eduction being governed by valves. In the Govan Colliery, Scotland, the compressed air is made to drive a high-pressure engine at the bottom of the shaft. See compressed-air engine. Attone, found within a primitive canoe, at a depth of 25 feet below the surface of the ground, in the Valley of the Clyde, Scotland. The canoe was hewn out of a single oak, and was exhumed from beneath the site once occupied by an ancient church. Thi
entle mind with its strains. Formerly common throughout Europe, it is now nearly restricted to Scotland, Ireland, parts of France, and Sicily. It is the common country instrument of the Punjaub. Bal-mor′al. 1. (Fabric.) A striped woolen stuff, deriving its name from Balmoral Castle in Scotland. 2. A sort of ladies' boot, lacing in front. Balne-um. A vessel filled with some heateanother, for similar reasons, has long been prevalent in Persia, Asia Minor, and Greece; and in Scotland, during the season when the heather is in bloom, many hives are annually carried to the heaths and crofting, that is, soaking in alkaline lye and spreading on the grass, was introduced into Scotland. After five or six repetitions of these processes, the linen was dipped in sour milk and then chlorine discharged vegetable colors. This he communicated to Watt, and it was soon adopted in Scotland with linen. Berthollet added potash to the water to preserve the health of the workmen and the
or the transportation of passengers in England and Scotland consist of three classes, the first class being wersey is a local name for a coarse worsted cloth of Scotland and Ireland. Cas′si-nette. (Fabric.) A cloin till the third century, and are yet used in Western Scotland for boats and draft. Chain-cables were used lock, and sent to the royal family even as far as Scotland; so they always have good milk and butter. The chly after. A cast-iron bevelwheel was also used in Scotland about the same time by Mr. W. Murdock. Not until sides for ear corn. 4. A reel for winding yarn (Scotland). 5. A small raft of timber (Canada). 6. A s a hoe, coeterisparibus. Wilkie, of Teddington, Scotland, is the inventor of the cultivator. He invented twn at f. Wilkie's horse-hoe and drill-harrow g (Scotland, 1820) has a central fixed share and adjustable sicalicoes by engraved copper cylinders, invented in Scotland and perfected in England. These are engraved on t
ncient damask. b. A woven fabric of linen, extensively made in Scotland and Ireland, and used for table-cloths, fine toweling, napkins, etemy is 17 × 17 inches. Dem′y-os′tage. A woolen stuff used in Scotland. Den-drom′e-ter. An instrument for measuring the hight and dgiven in 1357 by the Lord Mayor of London, the Kings of France and Scotland being prisoners and the King of Cyprus on a visit (temp. Edward IId disturbing the order of ore-bearing strata. 3. A stone fence (Scotland). 4. A ditch for water. Di-lat′or. An instrument for exteA stout figured linen (damask), said to be named after the town in Scotland (Dornock) where it was made, but probably deriving its name from Tg-machines, Suez canal. Duncan's dredger, used on the Clyde in Scotland, has an iron hull 161 feet long, 29 feet beam, 10 feet 9 inches deime-light signal visible from Antrim, in Ireland, to Ben Lomnd, in Scotland, a distance of ninetyfive miles in a straight line. It is sta
ng to the iron hooks described by Pliny, and to our hackle, were the combs like that shown in the cut b; two of which were found at Thebes, with some flax-tow attached, and are now in the Berlin Museum. One of them has 29 and the other one 46 teeth. c is a netting-needle from the same place. Flax was exported from Egypt to Gaul as late as the Christian era, and was ordered to be grown in England by statute of Henry VIII., 1533. A braking and scutching machine was run by water-power in Scotland in 1750. To prepare flax for manufacture, after the removal of the seeds, the hare (useful, fibrous portion) is separated from the boon (the refuse portions of the stalk). For this purpose the uniting gluten must be dissolved and removed. This is effected by rotting, either in ponds or by exposure to dew. In either case a fermentation ensues which renders the gluten soluble in water. Caustic alkali has the same effect on gluten, and forms the basis of many modern processes where by woo
and the necessary ventilation. Gre′go-ri — an Tel′e-scope. The first and most ordinary form of reflecting telescope, invented by Professor James Gregory of Scotland, and described by him 1663. Its object mirror or speculum is perforated in its axis, and reflects the image to a smaller concave speculum placed in the axis oto that object. 2. (Plumbing.) A tool used in smoothing the solder joints of lead pipe. Grubber. (Agriculture.) a. An agricultural implement used in Scotland for stirring and loosening the soil to plow depth. It is a heavy cultivator drawn by four horses, and supported on wheels. One form has an inner frame attachedired — except, perhaps, mercy. A beheading machine, called the maiden, and sometimes the widow, by the lively Scotch, was imported from Halifax, England, into Scotland, about 1550, by the Regent Morton, who seems to have been enamored of the maiden's business capacity. He was beheaded thereby in 1581, — though he was not
too long. A man would need 12 feet of ground to come out on to turn, and it is not necessary to withdraw so large a marginal strip of the field for such a purpose. See cultivator. Bucknalls's horse-hoe b (English) has a gang of 10 shares in a frame, adjustable by a lever as to hight, and also as to angular presentation of the shares to the ground. It is intended for hoeing wheat. An implement used for chopping gaps in drilled rows of plants was described by Skirving of Fifeshire, Scotland, in 1778, and constructed by Huckvale some 25 years since (d, Fig. 2521). It was designed for turnip culture, and is also used in cotton culture. In each case the seed is sown somewhat abundantly in drills, and requires to be thinned after having attained such size as to bear culture. The practice with cotton has been to cut gaps in the rows with a hoe, leaving the plants in square bunches, which are afterward thinned out to a few plants, and eventually, when the contingencies of insect e
92 feet; also one span of 262 feet; seven of 187 feet each. See d, Fig. 2702.Level.LatticeMichaelis. Louisville Whole length, 5,294 feet; weight of iron, 8,723,000 pounds.Ohio29400LevelTruss The iron truss-girder bridge over the Tay in Scotland, about 1 1/4 miles west of Dundee, is to be 10,320 feet in length, and to have, commencing on the Fifeshire side, spans as follows: three spans of 60 feet, two of 70, twenty-two of 120, fourteen of 200, sixteen of 120, twenty-five of 66, one ofe-power. Her weight, without engine, 33,600 pounds. The Garry Owen was the first iron vessel with water-tight bulkheads; suggested by C. W. Williams. See bulkhead. Iron vessels for America, Ireland, France, India, and China were built in Scotland and on the Mersey, 1833-39. The iron steam-vessels Nemesis and Phlegethon were used in the villainous Opium War of 1842. They were not the last vessels built on the Clyde for piratical expeditions. The Ironsides was the first iron sailin
allurgy. Keir. A vat for holding a bleaching liquor. The alkaline vat of a bleachery. See Buckingkier. Kel′lach. A wicker sledge or cart used in Scotland. Kem′e-lin. A brewer's vessel. Ke-men′geh. An Arab violoncello, with two strings. Kemps. 1. Impurities of fur; that is, knots and hairs which d breadth. Knit′ting-ma-chine′. The art of knitting is modern; it cannot be traced back farther than about A. D. 1500, and is believed to have originated in Scotland shortly previous to that date. It consists in the construction of a looped fabric in which for the first row a succession of loops are cast on or preferably kniso, for list of parts and appliances, see weaving. Knitting consists in making a fabric by enchaining a single thread. It is thought to have originated in Scotland about A. D. 1500. It was in use for superior articles of house in England and France in the first half of the sixteenth century. Knitted silk stockings were
the Garonne. In 1812, the Lizard Point light, Cornwall, England, was maintained with coal fires. The same may be said of the Isle of May light, Frith of Forth, Scotland, in 1816. This, in fact, was the usual light at that time in positions readily accessible. The Eddystone light first consisted of tallow candles stuck in a h1253. Before this, woolen shirts were generally worn. A company of linen-weavers was established in London, 1368. The Presbyterians, who left persecution in Scotland in the time of the Stuarts, planted the linen manufacture in the North of Ireland, and were encouraged by William III. and succeeding governments. Lin′en Papith clockwork attachments, so that they cannot be opened, even with their proper key, until a regulated interval of time has elapsed. Mr. Rutherford of Jedburg, Scotland, patented a lock of this description in 1831. A circular stop-plate is placed against the end of the bolt of the lock, and so adjusted that the bolt cannot be
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