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William Schouler, A history of Massachusetts in the Civil War: Volume 2 1,747 1,747 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 574 574 Browse Search
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 435 435 Browse Search
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Massachusetts in the Army and Navy during the war of 1861-1865, vol. 2 98 98 Browse Search
Brigadier-General Ellison Capers, Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 5, South Carolina (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 90 90 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 86 86 Browse Search
William F. Fox, Lt. Col. U. S. V., Regimental Losses in the American Civil War, 1861-1865: A Treatise on the extent and nature of the mortuary losses in the Union regiments, with full and exhaustive statistics compiled from the official records on file in the state military bureaus and at Washington 58 58 Browse Search
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Massachusetts in the Army and Navy during the war of 1861-1865, vol. 1, Mass. officers and men who died. 54 54 Browse Search
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 33. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones) 53 53 Browse Search
Capt. Calvin D. Cowles , 23d U. S. Infantry, Major George B. Davis , U. S. Army, Leslie J. Perry, Joseph W. Kirkley, The Official Military Atlas of the Civil War 49 49 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2. You can also browse the collection for 1865 AD or search for 1865 AD in all documents.

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Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 43: march through the Carolinas; the taking of Columbia (search)
he future after the ration supply had been exhausted. He said again: What can I do I told him that if I were he I would organize foraging parties from the inhabitants of the city, and send them out into portions of the country which our foragers had not reached and have them make forced loans. He must give careful certificates, promising their redemption after the advent of peace and prosperity. Years afterwards I met the same gentleman who had been mayor at the time of our visit in 1865. He told me that he had followed the advice which I had given him in detail, and that the plan had worked so well that there was no want. We actually commenced and completed the evacuation of the city the morning of the 20th. The destruction of certain Confederate public property — that is, property made use of for furthering the interests of the war — was committed to me in Sherman's specific instructions. The undertaking was accomplished by my inspector general, Lieutenant Colonel
Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 46: negro conditions during the Civil War (search)
Chapter 46: negro conditions during the Civil War Before the beginning of the summer of 1865 the Civil War had been brought to a close. The Union volunteers were soon thereafter mustered out of the military service; and, carrying with them as when necessary to prevent absolute starvation. These conditions with hardly an interruption continued until the spring of 1865. Grant's army in the West occupied Grand Junction, Miss., by November, 1862. The usual irregular host of slaves then sr short steps in the path of progress! They were experiments. From the time of the opening of New Orleans in 1862 till 1865, different systems of caring for the escaped slaves and their families were tried in the Southwest. Generals Butler and Bgement for Alabama, Southern Mississippi, and Louisiana was concentrated under Mr. Conway's control. He reported early in 1865 that there were about twenty colored regiments in Louisiana under pay and that they could purchase every inch of confiscat
Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 47: freedmen's aid societies and an act of congress creating a Bureau of refugees, freedmen and abandoned lands (search)
the United States became the possessor by confiscation, by sale, or in any other way. Even the number of acres was designated for each person. The commissioner was instructed further to secure the use of these farms to the occupants for three years, and further to charge a rental of 6 per cent. on a proper valuation. This benevolence was extended yet more — that the free inhabitants just emancipated might purchase the land at the expiration of their leases. This sort of legislation, in 1865, was quite new to our Government. It was the exercise of benevolent functions hitherto always contended against by our leading statesmen, even when providing for the Indian Bureau. The Nation, as something to love and cherish and to give forth sympathy and aid to the destitute, began then to be more pronounced than ever before. Our attitude toward the Indians in General Grant's peace policy and in giving them land in severalty; our intervention in Cuba and our subsequent neighborly action
land which was at that time so essential to their maintenance and their independence. The assistant commissioner for Louisiana was twice changed during the year 1865. General Absalom Baird was by some circumstance delayed from taking charge. I had my adjutant general, Fullerton, sent there to act temporarily as assistant commily self-supporting; still, there were good farms connected with each, faithfully worked by freedmen. The Mississippi assistant commissioner, Colonel Thomas, for 1865, had worked enough farms to raise a sufficient revenue for Bureau purposes within that State. From every part of Mississippi he showed that freedmen desired to ha amounts of abandoned land in the possession of the Bureau, and its operations under the Land Division were less in amount than in other directions. As the year 1865 was drawing to a close, I saw plainly that this work of restoring lands and providing reasonably for the occupants, arranging things properly with the land owners
Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 50: courts for freedmen; medical care and provision for orphans (search)
colored and white, magnified the report till the belief became prevalent that the Government intended, at the Christmas of 1865, to effect this division. Speculators who desired to cheapen the lands added to the tales their own exaggerations. The rnsas, too, except in impoverished districts, had readily found employment for workingmen, white or black. By the close of 1865, he believed that the active demand for labor was in a great measure settling the condition of society. The negroes werereafter confined its attention and resources mainly to orphan children. They cared for between one and two hundred during 1865. At first the association occupied the abandoned property of Mr. R. S. Cox, situated near Georgetown in the District, and the assistant commissioner. For a time, there were in Louisiana two other asylums, one that had been in existence before 1865 and was supported wholly by the Government; the other was opened by the colored people themselves. The assistant commissi
Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 51: the early finances; schools started (search)
able further shows something of their original use: Receipts: amounts received during the year 1865 from freedmen's fund$466,028.35 from freedmen's retained bounties115,236.49 for clothing, fues (tax and tuition)34,486.58 total received$907,396.28 expenditures: amounts during the year 1865. Freedmen's Fund$8,009.14 Clothing, Fuel, and Subsistence75,504.05 Farm s40,069.71 Household their own organizations. The entire number of pupils in the schools for freedmen at the close of 1865 in the States that had been in insurrection, adding Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and the Districo inaccessible. In the face of many difficulties there was hopeful activity the latter part of 1865. An old citizen wrote from Halifax, N. C.: I constantly see in the streets and on the doorsteps , it became difficult to furnish transportation to teachers or society agents. Before the end of 1865, such transportation was altogether interdicted by the Secretary. of War. Again citizen oppositi
Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 52: President Johnson's reconstruction and further bureau legislation for 1866 (search)
heir pay. These illustrations all through the South show our work in creating law-abiding communities in which fair local laws were slowly extending to the protection of negroes. Judicial proceeding was in a transition state everywhere and needed careful watching and continued experiment under friendly supervision, such as our officers uniformly gave. How much violence, fraud, and oppression, how much idleness, theft, and perhaps insurrection our agency prevented can never be measured. Other nations have not succeeded so well in relieving the shock to society when they were passing from slavery to freedom. The schools were increasing and were in much better shape than in 1865 and yet there were only 965 organized schools, 1,405 teachers, and 90,778 pupils. We knew that there ought to be ten times as many. It was but a beginning — a drop in the bucket-a nucleus — an object lesson. The demonstration, however, showed that it was practicable to educate the children of negro
Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 53: the bureau work in 1866; President Johnson's first opposition (search)
rs exercised by the officers of the Bureau are modified by the feelings and conduct of the people toward the freedmen. They admit there is a great difference in the feelings of whites toward the blacks. What other principle more uniform is it possible to adopt than to regulate the power of agents of the Bureau by the disposition and conduct of the people, favoring them as they approximate equal justice? It will be seen by referring to the regulations from this Bureau (Circular 5, Series 1865), approved by yourself, that a gradual transfer of jurisdiction was implied; and just as soon as practicable we have made trial of the civil courts in every State. I have sought the provost courts, as well as the civil, to relieve me of the exercise of judicial powers. Bureau officers have never attempted to regulate wages, and no order ever existed making regulations on the subject. Demand and supply controlled this matter. Of course wages, manner of payment, and all the questions ente
struction, which were reported to my officers and were by them recorded with the different circumstances attending them, it is now clear that the main object from first to last was somehow to regain and maintain over the negro that ascendency which slavery gave, and which was being lost by emancipation, education, and suffrage. The opposition to negro education made itself felt everywhere in a combination not to allow the freedmen any room or building in which a school might be taught. In 1865, 1866, and 1867 mobs of the baser classes at intervals and in all parts of the South occasionally burned school buildings and churches used as schools, flogged teachers or drove them away, and in a number of instances murdered them. But the better portion of the communities had not been engaged in these acts, and there was no evidence that respectable Confederate soldiers were involved in these enterprises. Our work of establishing schools went steadily on. Early in 1868, however, was th
Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 59: institutions of the higher grade; the Barry Farm (search)
ollege, and the sessions were for a long time intermitted. When I came to the freedmen's work in 1865, the institution, hardly yet advanced enough to bear the name of college, was reorganized by ProfLike Fisk and Hampton, it had much help from its earlier students. I remember in the summer of 1865 that a lady of large benevolence living in Jefferson City came all the way to Washington, D. C., The Sixty-second and Sixty-fifth United States colored regiments, when discharged from service in 1865, contributed generously to its founding-the Sixty-second, $5,000, and the Sixty-fifth, $1,379. Th had 348 pupils and 6 instructors. 20. Shaw University in Raleigh, N. C., had its inception in 1865 in the work and enterprise of Rev. Dr. H. M. Tupper (who was an enlisted Christian soldier duringcounts of twenty-six of those institutions of higher grade which began under my supervision from 1865 to 1870 and continued for more than twenty-five years, having had a constant development. The la
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