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Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 45: March through the Carolinas; the Battle of Bentonville; Johnston's surrender (search)
y (Johnston and his advisers) readily assented. These were explicit and general terms which were signed by Sherman and Johnston and forwarded for the approval or disapproval of the Executive. The clause which recognized the State Governments, whose legitimacy was to be determined by the Supreme Court, together with the other paragraph, which defined political rights and franchises, was what caused such a furor of opposition from Washington. The whole agreement was disapproved by President Johnson, and Grant was ordered to resume hostilities at the earliest moment ; and, further, Grant was instructed to proceed to Sherman's headquarters and direct opposition against the enemy. Grant came. His visit was a memorable one. His close friendship for Sherman prevented anything that might have been unfavorable to a speedy peace, and allayed all asperities; but he could not remove the deep chagrin Sherman felt, not that his terms had been disapproved, for that was discretionary wit
Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 48: organization of the freedmen's Bureau and my principles of action (search)
ir wants. All applications for relief by district and post commanders should be referred to them or their agents. President Johnson had covered, with district and post commanders and troops, the same ground previously covered by my officials. Itructions were submitted to the President. He favored them. Beneath my signature is written: Approved June 2, 1865. Andrew Johnson, President of the United States. The foregoing statements show the principles and methods under which I began a syh aided General Grant during the active war. For some months before the insurrectionary States were reorganized by Andrew Johnson, our Freedmen's Bureau officers in them afforded almost the only authorized government in civil affairs, and so, as ossistant commissioner. The Bureau had hardly begun its work when it encountered unexpected opposition. At first President Johnson was apparently very friendly to me, yet, while Mr. Stanton favored our strong educational proclivities, the Preside
early all of the farms transferred by Treasury agents as abandoned had already been, under President Johnson's orders, restored to owners. The tenure of these had become too precarious to admit of ssettlers who lawfully were holding the land. My circular of instructions did not please President Johnson. Therefore, in order to avoid misunderstandings now constantly arising among the people ia small homestead or something equivalent to each head of family of his former slaves; but President Johnson was amused and gave no heed to this recommendation. My heart ached for our beneficiaries, letter; it was chagrined when not a month later I received the following orders issued by President Johnson: Whereas certain tracts of land, situated on the coast of South Carolina, Georgia, a that our possession and control of it was not proper. But the positive adverse action of President Johnson and the non-action of Congress caused a complete reversal of the Government's generous pro
Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 50: courts for freedmen; medical care and provision for orphans (search)
the most needy and which in time he expected to become self-supporting. But his best work was the excellent provision he was making for contracts and leases for the coming year. The department commander and the new governor appointed by President Johnson were cordially cooperating with him. In the steadiness of labor, and in the kind relations of laborers and property holders, Alabama at that time was in advance of other States. It appeared by all accounts from Louisiana that the system y of Mr. R. S. Cox, situated near Georgetown in the District, and they greatly hoped to retain that property, which was in a healthful location and in every way commodious. But, on August 17th, I informed the ladies of the association that President Johnson had requested the Bureau to provide some other place for the orphans because he had fully pardoned Mr. Cox, the Confederate owner, and he was thereby entitled to complete restoration of his estate. The ladies were much grieved at this acti
Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 51: the early finances; schools started (search)
rried all their books and furniture, and to a considerable extent while the abandoned property remained available, provided buildings for the dwelling places of teachers and for the schools themselves. I early came to the conclusion that our school work was best promoted by placing one dollar of public money by the side of one of voluntary contribution. The Bureau gave to any benevolent society in that proportion. The society which undertook the most in that manner received most. President Johnson's restoration of estates, however, which we have already noticed, soon caused schoolhouses, churches, and many private residences to be severed from our use. One inspector wrote that our admirable system of education well inaugurated must fail unless permanent real estate for the freedmen and the schools could in some way be secured. The benevolent societies were ready to erect their own buildings if we could furnish them lots on which to build. This disposition helped us finally to
Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 52: President Johnson's reconstruction and further bureau legislation for 1866 (search)
Chapter 52: President Johnson's reconstruction and further bureau legislation for 1866 President Johnson, by the inspiration and help of his Secretary of State, Mr. Seward, had succeeded beforePresident Johnson, by the inspiration and help of his Secretary of State, Mr. Seward, had succeeded before the meeting of Congress in December, 1865, in completely rehabilitating all the States that had belonged to the Southern Confederacy, so far as the form went. Apparently all the functions of Governt any time by bill or otherwise. The contest that here began between that Congress and President Johnson, with all the Southern legislatures involved, affords a piece of history of deepest interethe measure over the President's veto, and it became a law July 16, 1866. The attitude of President Johnson and of the leading Southern whites, together with the apparent inability of Congress to ens commissioner, encountered, and they were hitherto unceasing, were the complaints made to President Johnson against officers and agents and referred to me for examination and correction. Any agent
Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 53: the bureau work in 1866; President Johnson's first opposition (search)
Chapter 53: the bureau work in 1866; President Johnson's first opposition Major Fowler, who had, as his main business, to hasten the return of houses and lands to pardoned owners, was given in addition the Claim Division. Its origin was this: At the office in Washington constant complaints had been received from our agents that discharged colored soldiers were constantly defrauded by unprincipled men of amounts due them from the Government. Some were told that they had dues when there weat may be said or reported before long against your Bureau. I did not at first very well understand what he meant, till the noisy and pretentious inspection of Steedman and Fullerton was well on foot. The following statements of mine to President Johnson, given August 23, 1866, in reference to this inspection, portrays the Bureau troubles and triumphs of that year. The last report of Generals Steedman and Fullerton of, an inspection of the Bureau under my charge contains so many statem
Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 55: first appropriation by congress for the bureau; the reconstruction Act, March 2, 1867; increase of educational work (search)
ncouraged negro education and counteracted the effect of unjust, prejudiced juries, and the action of some local courts, which arrested and in many instances practically reenslaved the negro. I simply conformed to the new law, as I had to President Johnson's previous plans. It was all the while my steady and avowed purpose, as soon as practicable, to close out one after another the original Bureau divisions, namely, that of lands, commissary and quartermaster supplies, justice through Bureissippi always afforded a peculiar study of human nature. General T. J. Wood, who went there after General Thomas's transfer to Washington, was himself relieved by General A. C. Gillem, an army officer who had long been a special friend of President Johnson. He entered upon his duties the last part of January, 1867. Gillem, whom I had known as a fellow cadet, consulting his hopes, believed that public sentiment in some sections of Mississippi was then undergoing a most favorable change. He
Oliver Otis Howard, Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, major general , United States army : volume 2, Chapter 56: famine reliefs; paying soldiers' bounties, and summary of work accomplished (search)
third section enabled me to apply all unexpended balances to the education of freedmen and refugees. The fourth section gave us the power to retain volunteer and veteran reserve officers in the service of the Bureau with their proper pay, and the fifth and last section enabled me to sell buildings to associations, corporate bodies, or trustees; this was to be done either for the relief of want or for purposes of education. This Act of Congress became a law without the approval of President Johnson, he permitting the ten days allowed for his veto to elapse without returning it to the House where it originated. Owing to the heated controversy still going on between the President and Congress, it was thought that the President would cause my removal, the air being full of rumors to that effect, so that the work of reconstruction as provided by the several Acts would be retarded by his replacing me by an opponent of Congress. To prevent that, the Act of June 24th was followed by
Chapter 57: the Ku-Klux Klan After Congress had overthrown President Johnson's plan and had completed the formal reconstruction of the insurrectionary States according to its own views, the political disabilities of the late Confederates deprived them of suffrage and placed the political control of these States in a new party, composed of Southern Union men, Northern men who at the end of the war settled in the South, and the negroes. Politicians of the Republican Party hoped through the wisest of rulers the opposition of the whites to being ruled by their late slaves would have been naturally very fierce. The opposition, as yet powerless at the polls, was greatly strengthened by the course, hostile to Congress, which President Johnson had pursued, and early in 1868 began to show itself in the operations here and there of certain secret organizations. The primary object of these associations was undoubtedly political, in some places avowed to be in opposition to the Unio
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