by the storms of war. Those named in the South the poor whites, especially of the mountain regions of Georgia, Tennessee, North and South Carolina, were included.
These had all along been greatly divided in their allegiance — some for the Union, advance from the contraband, fed, clothed, and housed for his labor, to the free wage-earner.
February 8, 1862, in North Carolina the battle of Roanoke Island was fought; immediately after it crowds of fugitives, most of them poor and ignorant neg
Later Chaplain Horace James of the Twenty-fifth Massachusetts Volunteers became Superintendent of Negro Affairs for North Carolina, and other officers were detailed to assist him. These covered the territory gradually opened by the advance of our armies in both Virginia and North Carolina.
Becoming a quartermaster with the rank of captain in 1864, he, for upward of two years, superintended the poor, both white and black in that region.
He grouped the fugitives in small villages, and diligent
Georgia and South Carolina9,36450,799374,837435,000398384
Kentucky and Tennessee10,17729,07225,88065,129414
Missouri and Arkansas18,73618,73672
Mississippi and Louisiana (part)50,75148,52559,2805211,41160
Maryland and Virginia (part)2,2825,0276,49713,806
By the taof the old Virginia farms which their owners had deserted, Colonel Brown had the freedmen well organized and cheerfully working.
They had during this year of trial abundant diversified crops.
Colonel Whittlesey, assistant commissioner for North Carolina, had remained in possession at the time of his first annual report of 112 pieces of town property, and 36,342 acres besides; under cultivation 4,868 acres. The President's pardon caused 50,029 acres and 287 pieces of town property to be resto