am of axe and spear; The sound of smitten shields I hear, Keeping a harsh and fitting time To Saga's chant and Runic rhyme.
I.—how the Northmen discovered north America.
[about the year 860, a Danish sailor named Gardar was driven upon the shores of Iceland, after which that island was settled by a colony from Norway.
Abwas Nantucket; others, the island of Conanicut in Narragansett Bay; and others, some place much farther north and east.
See Costa's Pre-Columbian Discovery of North America, Anderson's Norsemen in America, Kohl's History of the Discovery of the East Coast of North America, published by the Maine Historical Society.
IV.—ThorvaNorth America, published by the Maine Historical Society.
IV.—Thorvald, Leif's brother, goes to Vinland.
Now Thorvald made ready for this voyage with thirty men, with the counsel thereon of Leif, his brother.
Then they fitted out their ship, and bore out to sea (A. D. 1002): and there is nothing told of their voyage before they came to Vinland, to Leif's booths; and they laid up their ship, and<
re described, may be found in Parkman's Pioneers of France in the New World, p. 81. Another account of the same events, illustrated by the maps of the period, will also be found in Kohl's valuable History of the Discovery of the East Coast of North America (Maine Historical Society, 2d series, vol.
I), p. 320.
I.—Cartier's visit to Bay of Chaleur.
[Jacques Cartier was born in 1494, at St. Malo, a principal port of Brittany, France.
He was bred to the sea; and, having made fishing-voyeven as the other—cometh from the west: we thought it to be the river that runneth through the country of Saguenay.
[Cartier afterwards returned to the harbor of the Holy Cross, where he and his men passed the winter of 1535-36 with much suffering.
They were the first Europeans to pass the winter in the northern part of North America.
The French claim to the possession of this continent was founded on Cartier's discoveries.
The expedition reached St. Malo, on its return, July 16, 1536
ortifications very frequently.
They are built of a kind of concrete made with oyster-shells, and called coquina,this being the material also employed in Spanish buildings of the same period at St. Augustine.
There is another similar fortification a little farther up Beaufort River.]
Ii.—Alone in the New world.
[the thirty Frenchmen left behind at port Royal by Ribaut were probably the first Europeans who deliberately undertook to remain without ships upon the Atlantic shore of north America.
Parkman says of them, Albert and his companions might watch the receding ships. . . . they were alone in those fearful solitudes.
From the north pole to Mexico there was no Christian denizen but they.—Pioneers of France, p. 35.
the following is from the narrative of their adventures written by Laudonniere, who afterwards came to search for them, but did not arrive till they had gone.]
our men, after our departure, never rested, but night and day did fortify themselves, being in