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in 1860, in gainful occupations, 108,958 were farmers and 30,518 were farm laborers; showing that a very large proportion of her people were engaged in farming or planting. Of the so-called professional classes, there were 3,441 lawyers, 2,467 physicians and 1,437 clergymen. Her population was mainly rural in habitation; she had no cities of large size. Richmond contained but 37,910 inhabitants; Petersburg, 8,266, and Norfolk and Portsmouth but 24,116; Wheeling, the metropolis of northwestern Virginia, contained but 14,083. The manufacturers of all kinds were comparatively few in number; they were mostly the blacksmiths, bricklayers, carpenters, shoemakers and wheelwrights of the towns and villages throughout the commonwealth. Her military population, the white men of the State between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, was 196,587; a striking contrast to the 1,099,855 at that time within the limits of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, States to the west of her borders that had,
alleys and of the nine Appalachian counties that were subsequently embraced in West Virginia, remained, by a large majority, loyal to the State during the war; and, in a large degree, the same may be said of the Trans-Appalachian counties in and southwest of the Big Kanawha basin. The West Virginia secessionists, those that by act of Congress, when its membership was almost exclusively Northern, seceded from Virginia in 1861, were mainly confined to the Trans-Appalachian counties of Northwestern Virginia, where there were but few slaves and still fewer slaveholders, and where the larger portion of the population was more in sympathy with the adjacent States of Ohio and Pennsylvania than with the rest of Virginia. These people, by mere act of Congress and without her consent, deprived Virginia of over one-third of her territory and nearly one-fourth of her population. The humane and kindly character of African slavery in Virginia was eloquently attested by the fact that during th
d the same day, in which I am requested to detach from the militia of the State of Virginia the quota designated in a table, which you append, to serve as infantry oe ratification of the Constitution of the United States of America by the State of Virginia, and to resume all the rights and powers granted under said Constitution:onstitution are hereby repealed and abrogated; that the union between the State of Virginia and the other States under the Constitution aforesaid is hereby dissolved, and that the State of Virginia is in the full possession and exercise of all the rights of sovereignity which belong and appertain to a free and independent State.ge A. Porterfield was assigned to the command of the Virginia troops in northwestern Virginia and directed to establish his headquarters at Grafton, where the two brd occupied Arlington heights and Alexandria, and on the 26th the Federal forces tender General McClellan advanced into northwestern Virginia and occupied Grafton.
Chapter 4: The plan of invasion-northwestern Virginia Grafton. Philippi and Rich mountain May to July, 1861. The concentration of troops in the States adjacent to Virginia, under President Lincoln's call for 75,000 men, indicated fame. The Philippi Races, as this campaign was called, encouraged the Union and depressed the loyal citizens of northwestern Virginia. Porterfield continued his retreat across Laurel hill through Beverly and on to Huttonsville, with about 1,000an system. Its occupation enabled him to cover his base of supplies at Beverly and the lines of communication from northwest Virginia to Staunton by way of Huttonsville, from Huttonsville to Lewisburg on the Kanawha line, and between these towns to the Virginia Central railroad at Millboro. He really held the gates to northwestern Virginia. Reinforced by the First Georgia under Colonel Ramsey, Garnett made Laurel hill more defensible by blocking with fallen trees all the country roads from
South Carolina and Georgia, for the loan of arms, saying that he had three regiments and a fourth rapidly forming, but needed 1,600 guns to arm them, and giving as his excuse for thus applying that neither the Confederate government nor the State of Virginia could furnish arms for his troops, and he was fretting under the delay caused by this want. On June 23d, Wise, with his legion, reached Gauley bridge, 100 miles beyond the terminus of the Virginia Central railroad, and reported from Char Kanawha; left Gauley bridge, which he burned behind him, on the 27th, and after a march of over 100 miles arrived at Lewisburg on the last day of the month, and located his camp at Bunger's mill, 4 miles west of that town. These brief Northwestern Virginia campaigns, the first of the war and of barely two months duration, ending with July, were very far-reaching in their results. Mc-Clellan, by the force of numbers many times increased in efficiency by the aid of steam power on navigable
ow a defeated army, more especially of new troops, yields at a touch, and who above all, saw the necessity of giving the North no leisure to develop her immense resources. For three days Jackson impatiently awaited the order to advance, and his men were held ready with three days cooked rations in their haversacks. But his superiors gave no sign, and he was reluctantly compelled to abandon all hope of reaping the fruits of the victory. When McClellan, summoned in hot haste from northwestern Virginia to avert further disaster, reached Washington, on the 26th of July, he rode around the city inspecting the existing conditions. Of these he wrote: I found no preparations whatever for defense, not even to the extent of putting the troops in military positions. Not a regiment was properly encamped, not a single avenue of approach guarded. All was chaos, and the streets, hotels and bar-rooms were filled with drunken officers and men, absent from their regiments without leave —a
at of the Confederacy. Reinforcements were hurried forward on both lines, especially to northwestern Virginia on the Staunton and Parkersburg line, where the larger Federal force had been concentratn over the Parkersburg turnpike. The unsatisfactory results of military operations in northwestern Virginia and the constant appeals from the leading men of. that region to be rid of Federal dominng conditions of the weather. The Cheat mountain region, the dome of the watersheds of northwestern Virginia, covered by a vast and dense forest of large evergreen trees, reaches an altitude of neae plan of campaign a great victory—one that would have yielded most important results in northwestern Virginia, changed the condition of State affairs in that direction, and had a most important bear of the South could furnish. The Virginia regiments were made up of the picked men from northwestern Virginia and from the Great Valley. With such men and a brave and dashing commander, success in
and ascertain what was going on at Leesburg; on the 5th of August another took place opposite Point of Rocks, some miles from Leesburg, when a Federal force attempted to cross; and again, on the 8th, at Lovettsville, northeast of Leesburg, to which a Federal force had advanced from near Point of Rocks with the same object in view. On the 17th of August the Federal department of the Potomac, generally called the army of the Potomac, was created, to include Washington and vicinity, northeastern Virginia and the Shenandoah valley; and on the 20th General McClellan assumed command of this department with his headquarters at Washington. On the 24th this department was still further enlarged by taking in the department of Pennsylvania. Once in full command of the twelve brigades, the five unattached regiments of infantry, and the numerous bodies of cavalry and artillery in his division, on the 5th of August McClellan called upon his outposts for information concerning the Confedera
that the people manifested a readiness to submit to the Federal government, and that they were arranging to hold county meetings for this purpose, he wrote: The basis of the system in western Virginia will be adopted as a temporary measure. All with whom I have conversed look to an annexation with Maryland as an event much to be desired whenever it can constitutionally be accomplished. This, they think, can be done by regarding themselves, together with western Virginia, as the true State of Virginia, and inducing the State thus constituted and the State of Maryland to pass the necessary laws. He advised that Dix write to the governor of West Virginia, asking him to make proclamation, as soon as the people have declared their allegiance to the United States, ordering an election for the civil officers and a representative to the Congress of the United States, and concluded, I hope that by their joint action this interesting people may be relieved from their present position, and
y to move. Rosecrans, satisfied that there would be no further westward movement of the Confederates until spring, had determined, under cover of his 5,000 troops at Romney, to collect the whole force of his department, some 22,000 men, along the line of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, with the hope of securing permission from General McClellan to use these forces in an attack upon the Valley for the purpose of seizing, fortifying and holding Winchester, and thus dominating all of northeastern Virginia, and at the same time threatening Johnston's position at Manassas. These intentions of the enemy were speedily frustrated by Jackson, when, on the 1st of January, 1862, a bright and pleasant day, his army started for Bath, near the line of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. The army consisted of his own old brigade, commanded by Gen. R. B. Garnett, the three brigades under Loring, a part of the militia, five batteries, and most of Ashby's regiment of cavalry, the whole numbering about
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