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nd colonies established on the shores of Nova Scotia or Newfoundland. It is even suggested, that these early adventurers anf Bacallaos, which still lingers on the eastern side of Newfoundland, and has passed into the language of the Germans and th the discovery of the continent, 1504 the fisheries of Newfoundland were known to the hardy mariners of Brittany and Norman; who, amidst the miseries of France, still resorted to Newfoundland. There exists a letter Rut, in Purchas, III. 809. to Henry VIII., from the haven Aug 3. of St. John, in Newfoundland, written by an English captain, in which he declares, hes weather brought him in twenty days upon the coasts of Newfoundland. Having almost circumnavigated the island, he turned tfter a stormy voyage, that they arrived within sight of Newfoundland. Passing to the west of that island on the day of St. here were one 1578 hundred and fifty French vessels at Newfoundland, and regular voyages, for traffic with the natives, beg
ip was fitted out with much solemnity; but the priests, who sought the first interview with the natives, were feared as enemies, and, being immediately attacked, Louis and two others fell martyrs to their zeal. Death seemed to guard the approaches to that land. While the Castilians were everywhere else victorious, they were driven for a time to abandon the soil of Florida, after it was wet with their blood. But under that name they continued to claim all North America, even as far as Newfoundland and Canada. No history exists of their early exploration of the coast, nor is even the name of the Spanish navigator preserved, who, between the years 1528 and 1540, discovered the Chesapeake, and made it known as the Bay of St. Mary. Under that appellation the historian Oviedo, writing a little after 1540, describes it as opening to the sea in the latitude of thirty-six degrees and forty minutes, and as including islands; of two rivers which it receives, he calls the northeastern one,
f Europe. Thorne and Eliot, of Bristol, visited Newfoundland probably in 1502; in that year, savages in theiristed between England and the New World was with Newfoundland and its fisheries. The idea of planting agricd to the cardinal from the haven of St. John, in Newfoundland. The fisheries of that region were already freqthan two months, before they reached a harbor in Newfoundland. There the disheartened adventurers wasted away in England. In the next year, the fisheries of Newfoundland, which had suffered from exactions by the officeips came annually to the bays 14-8 and banks of Newfoundland. Parkhurst, in Hakluyt, III. 171 The possd Spain, of France and England, to the shores of Newfoundland. The English were not there in such numbers as as incensed, but not intimidated. He sailed for Newfoundland; and, entering St. Johns, he sum- Aug. 5. monedcents that are ours?” Already the fishing of Newfoundland was vaunted 1593 as the stay of the west countr
y, with admirable perseverance, constructed two vessels, in which they now embarked for Virginia, True Declaration of Virginia 23—26. in the hope of a happy welcome to the abundance of a prosperous colony. How great, then, was their horror, as they came among May 24. the scenes of death and misery, of which the gloom was increased by the prospect of continued scarcity Four pinnaces remained in the river; nor could the extremity of distress listen to any other course, than to sail for Newfoundland, and seek safety by dispersing the company among the ships of English fishermen. Ibid. 43, 44. The colonists—such is human nature—desired to burn June 7. the town in which they had been so wretched, and the exercise of their infantile vengeance was prevented only by the energy of Gates, Ibid. 45. Smith. II. 3. who was himself the last to desert the settlement. None dropped a tear, for none had enjoyed one day of happiness. They fell down the stream with the tide; but, the next mo<
ic frontier of the United States which was not entered by slavers. Compare Peter Martyr d'anghiera, d. VII. c. i. and II. in Hakluyt, v. 404, 405. 407. The native Indians themselves were ever ready to resist the treacherous merchant; the freemen of the wilderness, unlike the Africans, among whom slavery had existed from immemorial time, would never abet the foreign merchant, or become his factors in the nefarious traffic. Fraud and force remained, therefore, the means by which, near Newfoundland or Florida, on the shores of the Atlantic, or among the Indians of the Mississippi valley, Cortereal and Vasquez de Chap. V.} Ayllon, Porcallo and Soto, with private adventurers. whose names and whose crimes may be left unrecorded, transported the natives of North America into slavery in Europe and the Spanish West Indies. The glory of Columbus himself did not escape the stain; enslaving five hundred native Americans, he sent them 1494. to Spain, that they might be publicly sold at S
tations; he had been a member of the great company for Virginia; and, while secretary of state, he had obtained a special patent for the southern promontory of Newfoundland. How zealous he was in selecting suitable emigrants; how earnest to promote habits of domestic order and economical industry; how lavishly he expended his estate in advancing the interests of his settlement on the rugged shores of Avalon, Whitbourne's Newfoundland, in the Cambridge library. Also Purchas, IV. 1882—1891; Collier on, Calvert; Fuller's Worthies of Yorkshire, 201, 202; Wood's Athenae Oxonienses, II. 522, 523; Lloyd's State Worthies, in Biog. Brit. article Calvert; Chal evils of a common stock, he cherished enterprise by leaving each one to enjoy the results of his own industry. But numerous difficulties prevented success in Newfoundland: parliament had ever asserted the freedom of the fisheries, Chalmers, 84. 100. 114. 115. 116. 130. which his grants tended to impair; the soil and the clima
computation far below the truth. much more than a million of square miles, and capable of sustaining far more than two hundred millions of inhabitants, were, by a single signature of King James, given away to a corporation within the realm, composed of but forty individuals. The grant was absolute and exclusive: it conceded the land and islands; the rivers and the harbors; the mines and the fisheries. Without the leave of the council of Plymouth, not a ship might sail into a harbor from Newfoundland to the latitude of Philadelphia; not a skin might be purchased in the interior; not a fish might be caught on the coast; not an emigrant might tread the soil. No regard was shown for the liberties of those who might become inhabitants of Chap VIII.} 1620 the colony; they were to be ruled, without their own consent, by the corporation in England. The patent favored only the cupidity of the proprietors, and possessed all the worst features of a commercial monopoly A royal proclamation w
of the council of Plymouth, always ready to encounter risks in the cause of colonizing America, had not allowed repeated ill success to chill his confidence and decision; and now he found in John Mason, who had been governor of a plantation in Newfoundland, a man of action, like himself. It was not difficult for Mason, 1621. Mar. 9. who had been elected an associate and secretary of the council, to obtain a grant of the lands between Salem River and the farthest head of the Merrimac; but he dimmediate attempts were made to effect a Scottish settlement. One ship, despatched for the 1622. purpose, did but come in sight of the shore, and then, declining the perilous glory of colonization, returned to the permanent fishing station on Newfoundland. The next spring, a second ship arrived; but the two 1623. vessels in company hardly possessed courage to sail to and fro along the coast, and make a partial survey of tile harbors and the adjacent lands. The formation Chap IX.} of a colo