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cil his instructions, which required the Assembly to recede from all encroachments on the prerogative, and to consider, without delay, of a proper law for a perma- chap. IV.} 1753. nent revenue, solid, definite, and without limitation. All public money was to be applied by the governor's warrant, with the consent of Council, and the Assembly should never be allowed to examine accounts. With a distressed countenance and a plaintive voice, he asked if these instructions would be obeyed. Smith's History of New York, II. 159, 160. All agreed that the Assembly never would comply. He sighed, turned about, reclined against the windowframe, and exclaimed, Then, why am I come here? Being of morbid sensitiveness, honest, and scrupulous of his word, the unhappy man spent the night in arranging his private affairs, and towards morning hanged himself against the fence in the garden. Thus was British authority surrendered by his despair. His death left the government in the hands of Ja
ounted as they passed Oswego; part of an army going to the Beautiful River of the French. Stoddard to Johnson, 15 May, 1753. Holland to Clinton, 15 May, 1753. Smith to Shirley, 24 December, 1753. The Six Nations foamed with eagerness to take up the hatchet; for, said they, Ohio is ours. On the report that a body of twelve hia, but declined assisting to repel the French from a post which lay within the proprietary domain of Pennsylvania. New York Assembly Journals for April, 1754. Smith's New York, II. 173. The Assembly of New Jersey would not even send commissioners to the congress at Albany. In the universal reluctance of the single colonies, athen be virtually taxed by a chap. V.} 1754. congress of governors. The sources of revenue suggested in debate were a duty on spirits and a general stamp-tax. Smith's New York, II. 185. Gordon's History of the American Revolution, i. At length after much debate, in which Franklin manifested consummate address, the commissione
the assembly, whose power to prepare and pass the bills granting money, was admitted by the crown. See the case prepared by Mr. Charles, the New York agent, in Smith's New York, II. 195. It was under these influences that the Assembly of New York, in a loyal address to the king, had justified their conduct. The Newcastle adminTrade, Representation of the Board of Trade, 4 April, 1754, in N. Y. London Documents, XXXI. 39. and summarily condemned the colony by rejecting its address. Smith's New York, II. But the opinion of the best English lawyers Opinion of Hay in Smith, II. 197. No doubt this was also George Grenville's opinion. became more anSmith, II. 197. No doubt this was also George Grenville's opinion. became more and more decided against the legality of a government by royal instructions; encouraging the Americans to insist on the right of their legislatures to deliberate freely and come to their own conclusions; and on the other hand leading British statesmen to the belief, that the rule for the colonies must be prescribed by an act of the B
scene, nothing was so sublime as the persevering gallantry of the officers. They used the utmost art to encourage the men to move upon the enemy; they told them off into small parties of which they took the lead; they bravely formed the front; they advanced sometimes at the head of small bodies, sometimes separately, to recover the cannon, or to get possession of the hill; but were sacrificed by the soldiers who declined to follow them, and even fired upon them from the rear. Letter of Wm. Smith, of New-York, of 27 July, 1755. Account sent to Lord Albemarle,—in particular, the Report of the Court of Inquiry. So too, Sharpe to Lord Baltimore, August, 1755. Of eighty-six officers, twenty-six were killed,—among them, Sir Peter Hal- chap. VIII.} 1755. ket,—and thirty-seven were wounded, including Gage 1755 and other field-officers. Of the men, one half were killed or wounded. Braddock braved every danger. His secretary was shot dead; both his English aids were disabled early in<
a grave. Memoires sur Canada.—Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses.—Correspondence of A. Golden. I. Sharpe and others.—Knox's Journal.—Rogers's Journal. Mante's History of the War, 83-85.—French Accounts in New York Paris Documents, XIII.—Compare Smith's New York.—Hoyt's Antiquarian Researches.—Dwight's Travels. Pusillanimity pervaded the English camp. Webb at Fort Edward, with six thousand men, was expecting to be attacked every minute. He sent his own baggage to a place which he deemed shire to form a council. I cannot prevail with this republican assembly, said Dobbs, of North Carolina, to submit to instructions. If they raise the money, they name the persons for public service. Dobbs to Lords of Trade, 26 Dec., 1757. William Smith, the semi-republican historian of New York, insisted that the Board of Trade did not know the state of America, and he urged a law for an American union with an American parliament. The defects of the first plan, said he, will be su
Prince could mean to break the line. I give you his orders, rejoined Fitzroy, word for word. Who will be the guide to the cavalry asked Lord George. I, said the brave boy, and led the way. Lord George, pretending to be puzzled, was reminded by Smith, one of his aids, of the necessity of immediate obedience; on which, he sent Smith to lead on the British cavalry, while he himself rode to the Prince for explanation. Ferdinand, in scorn, renewed his orders to the Marquis of Granby, the second Smith to lead on the British cavalry, while he himself rode to the Prince for explanation. Ferdinand, in scorn, renewed his orders to the Marquis of Granby, the second in command, and was obeyed with alacrity; but the decisive moment was lost. Lord George's fall was prodigious, said Horace Walpole; nobody stood higher; nobody had more ambition or more sense. Pitt softened his misfortune with all the offices of humanity, but condemned his conduct. George the Second dismissed him from all his posts. A courtmartial, the next year, found him guilty of disobeying orders, and unfit for employment in any military capacity; on which, the king struck his name out
ducated in Connecticut, who have strongly imbibed the independent principles of that country, calumniate the administration in every exercise of the prerogative, and get the applause of the mob by propagating the doctrine, that all authority is derived from the people. These three popular lawyers were William Livingston, John Morin Scot, Rev. D. Johnson to the Archbishop of Canterbury. and—alas, that he should afterwards have turned aside from the career of patriotism!—the historian, William Smith. The news of the resignation of Pitt, who was almost idolized in America, heightened the rising jealousy and extended it through the whole continent. We have such an idea of the general corruption, said Ezra Stiles, a dissenting minister in Rhode Island, we know not how to confide in any person below the crown. Ezra Stiles to Franklin, Dec., 1761. You adore the Oliverian times, said Bernard to Mayhew, at Boston. I adore Him alone who is before all times, answered Mayhew, and at t