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ce as much territory as possible, without too openly compromising their respective governments. Acadia, according to its ancient boundaries, belonged to Great Britain; but France had always, even in rofound peace, Representation of the Board of Trade to the king, 1721. urgently declared that Acadia included only the peninsula; before the restoration of Cape Breton, an officer from Canada had oe, in March, 1749, to disbanded officers and soldiers and marines, to accept and occupy lands in Acadia; and before the end of June, more than fourteen hundred persons, Lords of Trade to Cornwallisants had, in 1730, taken an oath of fidelity and submission to the English king, as sovereign of Acadia, and were promised indulgence in the true exercise of their religion, and exemption from bearingthmus, compelled him to attempt confining the English within chap. II.} 1749. the peninsula of Acadia. La Jonquiere to Cornwallis, 25 October, 1749. Cornwallis to La Jonquiere, 1 November, 1749.
Memorials of the English Commissaries, 21 Sept., 1750. The claim, in its full latitude, by the law of nations, was preposterous; by a candid interpretation of treaties, was untenable. France never had designed to cede, and had never ceded, to England, the southern bank of the St. Lawrence, nor any country north of the forty-sixth parallel of latitude. In their reply to the British claim, the French commissaries, in like manner disregarding the obvious construction of treaties, narrowed Acadia to the strip of land on the Atlantic, between Cape St. Mary and Cape Canseau. Memorial of the French Commissaries, 21 September, and an explanatory Memorial, 16 November, 1750. There existed in France statesmen who thought Canada itself an incumbrance, difficult to be defended, entailing expenses more than benefits. But La Galissoniere La Galissoniere: Memoire sur les Colonies de la France, December, 1750. pleaded to the ministry, that honor, glory, and religion forbade the aband
bed-chamber women, and pages of the back stairs. A right system of education seemed impracticable. Waldegrave's Memoirs. Neither the king nor the court of the Prince of chap. IV.} 1753. Wales was, therefore, ready to heed the communication of Dinwiddie; but it found the Lords of Trade bent on sustaining the extended limits of America. In the study of the Western World no one of them was so persevering and indefatigable as Charles Townshend. The elaborate memorial on the limits of Acadia, delivered in Paris, by the English commissioners, in January, 1753, was entirely his work, Reply of the English Commissaries, in All the Memorials, &c. Note to page 195. Jasper Mauduit to the Speaker of the Massachusetts Assembly, 12 March, 1763. and, though unsound in its foundation, won for him great praise North Briton, No. 20. for research and ability. He now joined with his colleagues in advising the secretary of state to the immediate occupation of the eastern bank of the Ohio,
Chapter 8: England and France Contend for the Ohio valley and for Acadia.—Newcastle's administration continued. 1755. anarchy lay at the heart of the ins Of these, a detachment took part in establishing the sovereignty of England in Acadia. That peninsular region—abounding in harbors and in forests; rich in its oceanlast, after repeated conquests and restorations, the treaty of Utrecht conceded Acadia, or Nova Scotia, to Great Britain. Yet the name of Annapolis, the presence of rdly fifteen miles wide, and formed the natural boundary between New France and Acadia. The French at Beau-Sejour had passed the previous winter in unsuspecting tr after the ancient device of Oriental despotism, that the French inhabitants of Acadia should be carried away into captivity to other parts of the British dominions. y inflicted, so bitter and so perennial, as fell upon the French inhabitants of Acadia. We have been true, they said of themselves, to our religion, and true to ours
Chapter 9: Great Britain unites America under military rule Newcastle's administration continued. 1755-1756. while the British interpretation of the bounda- chap. IX.} 1755. ries of Acadia was made good by occupation, the troops for the central expeditions had assembled at Albany. The army with which Johnson was to reduce Crown Point consisted of New England militia, chiefly from Connecticut and Massachusetts. A regiment of five hundred foresters of New Hampshire were raising a fort in Coos, on the Connecticut; but, under a new summons, they made the long march through the pathless region to Albany. Among them was John Stark, then a lieutenant, of a rugged nature, but of the coolest judgment; skilled at discovering the paths of the wilderness, and knowing the way to the hearts of the backwoodsmen. The French, on the other hand, called every able-bodied man in the district of Montreal into active service for the defence of Crown Point, so that reapers had to be sent up
ida portage, and, after felling trees to obstruct the passage to the Onondaga, fled in terror to Albany. Loudoun approved placing obstacles between his army and the enemy; for he also was extremely anxious about an attack from the French, while flushed with success. If it had been made on the provincials alone, it would, he complacently asserted, have been followed with very fatal consequences. Provincials had, it was true, saved the remnant of Braddock's army; provincials had conquered Acadia; provincials had defeated Dieskau; but Abercrombie and his chief sheltered their own imbecility under complaints of America. After wasting a few more weeks in busy inactivity, Loudoun, whose forces could have penetrated to the heart of Canada, left the French to construct a fort at Ticonderoga, and dismissed the provincials to their homes, the regulars to winter quarters. Of the latter, a thousand were sent to New York, where free quarters for the officers were demanded of the city. The d
Vaudreuil, governor of New France, to a congress at Montreal of the warriors of three and-thirty nations, who had come together, some from the rivers of Maine and Acadia, some from the wilderness of Lake Huron and Lake Superior. I am ordered, he continued, to destroy it. Go, witness what I shall do, that, when you return to your mrne up to Lake George, held on the plain above the portage one general council of union. All the tribes from the banks of Michigan and Superior to the borders of Acadia, were present, seated on the ground according to their rank, and, in the name of Louis the Fifteenth, Montcalm produced the mighty belt of six thousand shells, whll intoxicating drinks, but they solicited and obtained them of the English, and all night long they were wild with dances and songs and revelry. The Abenakis of Acadia excited the angry passions of other tribes, by recalling the sorrows they had suffered from English perfidy and English power. At daybreak, they gathered round t
e signed between France and Spain on the one side, and England and Portugal on the other. To England were ceded, besides islands in the West Indies, the Floridas; Louisiana to the Mississippi, but without the island of New Orleans; all Canada; Acadia; Cape Breton and its dependent islands; and the fisheries, except that France retained a share in them, with the two islets St. Pierre and Miquelon, as a shelter for their fishermen. For the loss of Florida France on the same day indemnified Spauniting beyond all others celerity with courage, knew chap. XX.} 1763. best how to endure the hardships of forest life and to triumph in forest warfare. Its ocean chivalry had given a name and a colony to Carolina, and its merchants a people to Acadia. The French discovered the basin of the St. Lawrence; were the first to explore and possess the banks of the Mississippi, and planned an American empire that should unite the widest valleys and most copious inland waters of the world. But New