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heir chief; Gladwin to Amherst, 14 May, 1763. respected, and in a manner adored, by all the nations around him; a man of integrity and humanity, Fraser to Gen. Gage, 15 May, 1765. according chap. VII.} 1763. May. to the morals of the wilderness; of a comprehensive mind, fertile in resources, and of an undaunted nature, perree companies of lnilitia; Ibid, 515. and in 1768 the official census reported but five hundred and seventy-two souls, State of the Settlement of Detroit, in Gage to Hillsborough, No. 2, of 15 May, 1768: Number of souls, 572; cultivated acres, 514 1/2; corn produced yearly, 9789 French bushels; horned cattle, 600; hogs, 567.Paulli was taken as a trophy to Detroit. Particulars regarding the loss of Sandusky, as furnished by Ensign Paulli after his escape, in the abstract made by General Gage. At the mouth of the St. Joseph's the Jesuit missionaries, for nearly sixty years, had toiled among the heathen, till, at the conquest of Canada, they made
e cession of Canada to England; another, addressed to twenty-five nations by name, to all the Red Men, and particularly to Pontiac, chief of the Ottawas; a third to the commander, expressing a readiness to surrender to the English all the forts on the Ohio, and east of the Mississippi. The next morning Pontiac sent to Gladwin, that he accepted the peace which his father, the French, had sent him, and desired all that had passed chap. IX.} 1763. Oct. might be forgot on both sides. Major-General Gage to Secretary Halifax, 23 Dec. 1763. Friendly words were exchanged, though the formation of a definitive treaty of peace was referred to the Commander-in-Chief. The savages dispersed to their hunting grounds. Nothing could restrain the Americans from peopling the wilderness. To be a freeholder was the ruling passion of the New England man. Marriages were early and very fruitful. The sons, as they grew up, skilled in the use of the axe and the rifle, would, one after another, m
he spirit of loyalty. The wilderness was still ringing with the war-whoop of the savage; M. de St. Ange to M. d'abadie, 15 July, 1764. and the frontiers were red with blood; while the colonies themselves, at the solicitations of Amherst and of Gage, his successor, were lavishing their treasure to secure the west to Great Britain. In July, the little army of eleven hundred men, composed chiefly of provincial battalions from New Jersey, New-York, and Connecticut, that of Connecticut led by Cast concourse of Indians, of various nations, willing to renew friendship, and expecting presents. The Senecas, to save their settlements from imminent destruction, brought in prisoners, and ratified a peace. Bradstreet had been ordered by General Gage to give peace to all such nations of Indians as would sue for it, and to chastise those that continued in arms; but none remained in arms. Half way from Buffalo to Erie, he was met by deputations from the Shawnees, the Delawares, the Hurons o
5. Mar. with power to billet troops on private houses. Clauses for that purpose, drafted by Robertson, the Deputy Quartermaster General, Lieut. Col. Robertson's Memorial, and Regulations proposed to be made in the Mutiny Act. were sent home by Gage, and recommended strongly to be enacted. Shelburne to Chatham, 1767, in Chatham Correspondence, III. 192 and 208. They had neither the entire conviction nor the cordial support of Grenville; Gage to Halifax, 23 January, 1765. so that they weGage to Halifax, 23 January, 1765. so that they were referred by Halifax Endorsement on the Memorial, and on the Regulations. to Welbore Ellis, the Secretary at War, by whom they were introduced and carried through. In their progress, provincial barracks, inns, alehouses, barns, and empty houses were substituted by the merchants and agents for private houses; but there remained the clause to compel the colonies to furnish the troops, at the expense of the colony, with fire, candles, vinegar, salt, bedding, utensils for cooking, beer, or cid
n. This is the way the fire began in Virginia. John Hughes's Letter, in Boston Gazette of 22 Sept. 1766. Of the American colonies, Virginia rang the alarm bell. Bernard to Halifax, Aug. 1765. Virginia gave the signal for the continent. Gage to Conway, 23 Sept. 1765. At the opening of the legislature of Massachusetts, Oliver, who had been appointed stamp-distributor, was, on the joint ballot of both branches, re-elected councillor, by a majority of but three out of about one hundrtion entitles them. * * They desire no more; nor can they be satisfied with less. * * Such were the words in which the sober judgment of New-York embodied its convictions. Was John Morin Scott the author of the piece signed Freeman? Colden and Gage attribute the political papers to the lawyers; and Scott seems most likely to have written this. But the opinion is only inferential. I know of no direct evidence. They were caught up by the impatient colonies; were reprinted in nearly all their
eemed to go forth, that Boston should lead the way in the work of compulsion. Gage to Conway, Sept. It was already known there, that the king, desirous of chan4 August, 1765. Lloyd's Conduct, 90, 91. That little turbulent colony, reported Gage, Gage to Lee, Sept. 1765. raised their mob likewise. And on the twenty-eightGage to Lee, Sept. 1765. raised their mob likewise. And on the twenty-eighth day of August, after destroying the house and furniture of one Howard, who had written, and of one Moffat, who had spoken in favor of the power of parliament to taxhall have as many troops as you shall demand, and can find quarters for, replied Gage; and at the same time, he urged Colden to the severe exertion of the civil powerrs, he continued, are crammed with treason, and the people excited to revolt. Gage to Colden, 31 Aug. 1765. But mean time, McEvers, the stamp officer of New-York rr to prevent it, or to suppress any insurrection that might happen. Sharpe to Gage 5 Sept. 1765. On the fifth, Bernard, at Boston, gave way, without dignity or
a fort, mounting many heavy cannon. Journal of an Officer. King's Lib. Ms. 213. There the authority of the British government was concentrated in the hands of Gage, the general, whose military powers, as ample as those of a Viceroy, extended over all the colonies, and who was extremely exasperated N. Rogers to Hutchinson, f events, as well in New-York as Massachusetts. But he was at a loss what to do. Besides, the officers of government had no confidence in one another. In Boston, Gage was not esteemed a man of capacity; and he, in his turn, thought Bernard pusillanimous. At New-York, he called upon the civil power to exert itself more efficiently. All civil authority is at an end, Colden to Gage, 2 Sept. 1765. answered Colden; the presence of a battalion is the only way to prevent mischief. It will be more safe for the government, interposed the Council Advice of Counsel to Colden, 7 Sept. of the province of New-York, to show a confidence in the people. But Co
ions round about, plighted his word for peace, and kept Fraser to Gage, 18 May. it with integrity and humanity. A just curiosity may askdred and fifty; of negroes of both sexes, nine hundred; Fraser to Gage, 15 May. The banks of the Wabash, we learn from another source, were. Croghan, in Craig's Olden Time, and in Mann Butler's Kentucky. Gage to Halifax, 10 Aug. Fraser sought to overawe the French traders withe leaf, on the morning of the tenth of October, Capt. Stirling to Gage. French Procts Verbal. he surrendered to them the left bank of the persuasive methods, and the utmost prudence and lenity. Conway to Gage; to Bernard; to the Governors of North America. The conduct of A regulated by the Congress, at New-York. Those who compose it, said Gage, are of various characters and opinions; but in general, the spirit ct; but that it is unconstitutional and contrary to their rights. Gage to Conway, 12 Oct. No colony was better represented than South Caro
riots The pretended patriots, educated in a seminary of Democracy. Gage to Sir W. Johnson, 20 Sept. 1765. In New-York, the whole city roct. The sailors came from their shipping; the people flocked in, as Gage thought, by thousands; the number seemed to be still increasing; andterposed. Minutes of the Common Council of N. Y. 5 Nov. Colden to Gage, 5 Nov. They asked that the stamped paper should be delivered into tunequal to the protection of the inhabitants; Minutes of Council. Gage, being appealed to, Colden to Gage, 5 Nov. Gage to Colden, 5 Nov.Gage, 5 Nov. Gage to Colden, 5 Nov. Gage to Conway, 8 Nov. Colden to Conway, 9 Nov. avowed the belief, that a fire from the fort would be the signal for an insurrection, and theGage to Colden, 5 Nov. Gage to Conway, 8 Nov. Colden to Conway, 9 Nov. avowed the belief, that a fire from the fort would be the signal for an insurrection, and the commencement of a civil war. So the head of the province of New-York, and the military chief of all America, confessing their inability to sGage to Conway, 8 Nov. Colden to Conway, 9 Nov. avowed the belief, that a fire from the fort would be the signal for an insurrection, and the commencement of a civil war. So the head of the province of New-York, and the military chief of all America, confessing their inability to stop the anarchy, capitulated to the municipal body which represented the people. The stamps were taken to the City Hall; the city government
ected. Letter from London of 14 Dec. 1765, in Boston Gazette, 24 Feb. 1766. Compare T. Pownall to Hutchinson, 3 Dec. 1765, and a letter of Franklin of 6 Jan. 1766. The successive accounts from America grieved the king more and more. Where this spirit will end, said he, is not to be said. It is undoubtedly the most serious matter that ever came before parliament, Geo. III. to Conway, 6 Dec. and he urged for it deliberation, candor, and temper. He was highly provoked Conway to Gage, 15 Dec. by the riots in New-York; and the surrender of the stamps to the municipality of the city seemed to him greatly humiliating. He watched with extreme anxiety the preliminary meeting of the friends of the ministry; and when the day for opening parliament came, he was impatient to receive a minute report of all that should occur. Geo. III. to Conway, 7 Dec. The Earl of Hardwicke, Hugh Hammersley to Lieut. Gov. Sharpe, Dec. 1765, gives a very good report of the debate. Compa