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ry of Charles II. had spared, were no longer safe. A new territorial arrangement of provinces was in contemplation; Massachusetts itself was to be restrained in its boundaries, as well as made more dependent on the king. This arbitrary policy reqhese regiments were, for the first year only, to be supported by England, Jasper Mauduit, agent of the province of Massachusetts, to the speaker of the House of Representatives, 12 March, 1763, to be found in Massachusetts' Council Letter Book ofrtunity of examining the correspondence of Hutchinson. The letter which he cited should now be among tile records of Massachusetts, but I searched for it there in vain. Yet I see no reason for doubting the accuracy of the quotation. Richard Jacksont, 16 Feb. 1763. had been gratefully welcomed in the New World. We in America, said Otis Hutchinson's History of Massachusetts, III. 101, 102. to the people of Boston, on being chosen moderator at their first town meeting in 1763, have abundant
of Bernard to the British government. Answer of Francis Bernard, 1763. Esq., Governor of Massachusetts 423. Bay, to the queries proposed by the Lords Commissioners for Trade and State, Plantations; dated 5 September, King's Library, Mss. CCV. Compare on the loyalty of Massachusetts, Bernard to Sec. of 16 Feb. 1763, and same to same, 25 Oct. 1763. On the extension of the British frontientest with indifference; but Colden now urged the Board of Trade to annex to New-York all of Massachusetts and of New-Hampshire west of the Connecticut River. The New-England Governments, he reasoned1763. Little was the issue of this fatal advice chap. VIII.} 1763. Sept. foreseen. While Massachusetts was in danger of an essential violation of its charter with regard to one branch of its legiof Georgia, stood ready to defend the stamp act, as least liable to objection. The agent of Massachusetts, through his brother, Israel Mauduit, who had Jenkinson for his fast friend and often saw Gr
dependent governments. Campbell, 17, 18. The boundary of Massachusetts, both on the east and on the north, was clearly defined; extends, of which the extent chap. IX.} 1764. Jan. was kept secret. Massachusetts, in January, 1764, with a view to effect the greatest possible o oppose it; J. Mauduit, 11 February, 1764. and the agent of Massachusetts made a merit of his submission. Jasper Mauduit's letter to tuel Adams's opinion of Thomas Pownall. who had been Governor of Massachusetts, and is remembered as one who grew more and more liberal as he erted with Israel Mauduit, acting for his brother; the agent of Massachusetts, and was nothing less than the whale fishery. Jasper Mauduit, the Agent of Massachusetts. Report of Privy Council, 7 March. Order in Council, 9 March, 1764. Great Britain had sought to com- chap. Insive commercial system. Even Thomas Pownall, once governor of Massachusetts, who, not destitute of liberal feelings, had repeatedly predict
nothing was done, though Jackson wrote to Hutchinson of Massachusetts for his opinion on the rights of the colonists and the ice. Ibid., 80. Such were the views of Otis, sent by Massachusetts to its agent in London, to be improved as he might judgampshire, and annexed to New-York the country north of Massachusetts and west of Connecticut river. Board of Trade to Lie chap. X.} 1764. Oct. act even the laws of trade. Like Massachusetts, they elected a committee of correspondence. The colones, by the arbitrary exertion of the prerogative. In Massachusetts, Bernard was eager to carry into effect a new arrangemet of New-York extended as far as Connecticut river; and Massachusetts was to embrace the country from the Connecticut river tnd to the Penobscot, and yet another to the St. John's. Massachusetts, he continued, would then afford a fine opportunity foror did Bernard forget to remind Lord Halifax, that once Massachusetts had for a season established a stamp act. Bernard to
England were reading the history of the first sixty years of the Colony of Massachusetts, by Hutchinson. This work is so ably executed that as yet it remains withoons. He mocked at the absurdity of Otis, and the insolence of New-York and Massachusetts. The arguments of America, said he, mixed up with patriotic words,. One member, however, referred with asperity to the votes of New-York and Massachusetts, and the house generally seemed to hold that America was as virtually repretained by it immense advantages at a vast expense to the mother country. Massachusetts Gazette of 9 May, 1765. And now, said he, will these American children, plam Connecticut, though expressed in the most moderate language; a fifth from Massachusetts, though silent even about the question of right, all shared the same refusafor relief to the rapid increase of the people of America. The agent for Massachusetts had recommended the tax. Knox, The Claim of the Colonies to Exemption fr
in wood and coal; slitting mills, steel furnaces, and plating forges, to work with a tilt hammer, were prohibited in the colonies as nuisances. While free labor was debarred of its natural rights, the slave trade was encouraged with unrelenting eagerness; and in the year that had just expired, from Liverpool alone, seventy-nine ships had borne from Africa to the West Indies and the continent more than fifteen thousand three hundred negroes, two-thirds as many as the first colonists of Massachusetts. And now taxation, direct and indirect, was added to colonial restrictions; and henceforward both were to go together. A duty was to be collected on foreign sugar, molasses, indigo, coffee, Madeira wine, imported directly into any of the plantations in America; also a duty on Portugal and Spanish wines, on Eastern silks, on Eastern calicoes, on foreign linen cloth, on French lawn, though imported directly from Great Britain; on British colonial coffee shipped from one plantation to
the glorious constitution of Great Britain is the best that ever existed among men. Such was the universal opinion. Massachusetts had been led to rely on the inviolability of English freedom, and on the equity of parliament; and, when the blow fel But heedless alike of the derision of those about them, and of the prophecy of the minister, the representatives of Massachusetts shared the creative instinct of Otis. Avoiding every expression of a final judgment, and insuring unanimity by even Trade, 15 July, 1765. Simultaneously, in the very first days of June, and before the proceedings in Virginia and Massachusetts were known in New-York, where the re-print of the Stamp Act was hawked about the streets as the Folly of England and even formed part of the instructions of South Carolina South Carolina to Garth, 16 Dec. 1765. to its agent in England. Thus revolution proceeded. Virginia marshalled resistance; Massachusetts entreated union; New-York pointed to independence.
d appeared, and the sum- chap. XIV.} 1765. June. mons for the Congress had gone forth from Massachusetts, when the resolves of Virginia were published to the world. They have spoken treason, said traditions of the Board of Trade branded it as mutinous. Bladen, in Hutchinson, III. 109. Massachusetts had proceeded cautiously and almost timidly, naming for its delegates to the proposed Congrewas not suffered by Fauquier to come together. New Jersey received the circular letter of Massachusetts on the twentieth of June, the last day of the session of its legislature. The Speaker, a frbly of South Carolina was in session; and on the twenty-fifth day of July, the circular from Massachusetts was debated. Many objections were made to the legality, the expediency, and most of all to ternally as externally, to listen to the call of our northern brethren in their distresses. Massachusetts sounded the trumpet, but to Carolina is it owing that it was attended to. Had it not been fo
distrust of the people fell more and more upon Hutchinson.—He is a prerogative man, they cried. He grasps at all the important offices in the state.—He himself holds four, and his relations six or seven more.—He wiped out of the petition of Massachusetts every spirited expression. —He prevailed to get a friend of Grenville made chap. XVI.} 1765. Aug. agent for the colony.—He had a principal hand in projecting the Stamp Act.—He advised Oliver against resigning.—To enforce the acts of trade,pping on land; and afterwards, on his return to Portsmouth, repeated his resignation on the parade, in the presence of a great multitude. Connecticut, which from its compact population and wealth, was, in military resources, second only to Massachusetts, loved its charter, of which it dreaded to risk the forfeiture by involving its legislature. The people, therefore, systematically assumed the direction of opinion. Assured of the protection of Fitch, the governor, who at heart was a
inst Magna Charta is for that reason void. In a more solemn tone, the convictions and purposes of America found utterance through the press. John Adams, of Massachusetts, a fiery Protestant, claiming intellectual freedom as the birthright of man, at once didactic and impetuous, obeying the impulses of a heart that burned for hipatriotism of its inhabitants, obtaining the consent of every branch of its legislature,—successively elected delegates to the general American Congress. In Massachusetts, Boston, under the guidance of Samuel Adams, set the example to other towns, and in his words denounced to its representatives the Stamp Act, and its Courts ofended over all the colonies, and who was extremely exasperated N. Rogers to Hutchinson, N. Y. 16 Sept. 1765. at the course of events, as well in New-York as Massachusetts. But he was at a loss what to do. Besides, the officers of government had no confidence in one another. In Boston, Gage was not esteemed a man of capacity; a
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