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es between America and England are to be sought not only in the sources already referred to, but specially in the correspondence of the Colony Agents resident in London, with their respective Constituents. I pursued the search for papers of this class, till I succeeded in securing letters official or private from Bollan; Jasper Mauduit; Richard Jackson,—the same who was Grenville's Secretary at the Exchequer, a distinguished Member of Parliament, and at one time Agent for three Colonies;—Arthur Lee; several unpublished ones of Franklin; the copious and most interesting, official and private Correspondence of William Samuel Johnson, Agent for Connecticut; one letter and fragments of letters of Edmund Burke, Agent for New-York; many and exceedingly valuable ones, of Garth a Member of Parliament and Agent for South Carolina; and specimens of the Correspondence of Knox and Franklin, as Agents of Georgia. Analogous to these are the confidential communications which passed between Hutch
Hutchinson to his son, then in England, 29 May, 1766. of the ablest friends of the people in the board. John Adams: Diary in Works, II. 204. He had the legal right to do so; and the Legislature submitted without a murmur. Samuel Adams to Arthur Lee, 19 April, 1771. Here the altercation should have terminated. But on the following day, Bernard—an abject coward, See the Journal of Captain Conner of the Romney, and the letters of the Romney, and the letters Commodore Hood, &c., &c., Private Diary. Works, II. 204. fit to express their indignation. Bernard's speeches fell on the ear of Samuel Adams, as not less infamous and irritating than the worst that ever came from a Stuart to the English Parliament; Samuel Adams to Arthur Lee, 19 April, 1771. and with sombre joy he called the Province happy in having for its Governor, one who left to the people no option, but between perpetual watchfulness and total Chap. XXV.} 1766. June. ruin. The free exercise of our undoub
of view that all his glory as a statesman had come from his opposition to Grenville and Bedford, governed himself exclusively by the ancient principle of his party to fight up against the King and against the people, Marquis of Lansdowne to Arthur Lee, in Life of Arthur Lee, II. 357. and set about forming a Ministry by cementing the shattered fragments of the old Whig aristocracy. He began with Bedford. Bedford and Grenville are one, said Rigby, by authority; and neither of them will ever Arthur Lee, II. 357. and set about forming a Ministry by cementing the shattered fragments of the old Whig aristocracy. He began with Bedford. Bedford and Grenville are one, said Rigby, by authority; and neither of them will ever depart from the ground taken, to assert and establish the entire sovereignty of Great Britain over her Colonies. Phillimore's Life and Correspondence of Lord Lyttelton, II. 724. But Rockingham avoided all detail as to measures and as to men, and according to the old fashion, satisfied himself by declaring for a wide and comprehensive system. After a week's negotiation, Numerous Papers illustrating the negotiation are to be found in Bedford's Correspondence, III. Compare, also, Lyttelton'
defeat the mis chievous designs of those turbulent and seditious per sons, who, under false pretences, have but too success- Chap. XXXVIII} 1768. Nov. fully deluded numbers of my subjects in America. In the House of Commons Lord Henly, Arthur Lee in Life of R. H. Lee, 261, 262. The Letter is dated erroneously, Oct. 9, for Nov. 9, 1768. I have several reports of this debate. Cavendish, i. 32, &c. William S. Johnson to Gov. Pitkin, 18 November, 1768. son of Northington, in moving the A rioters to justice. Wedderburne, who at that moment belonged to himself and spoke in opposition to enhance his price, declaimed against governing by files of musketeers and terror; and he, too, condemned the Ministerial mandate as illegal. Arthur Lee's Report of the Debate, in Appendix to Life of R. H. Lee, 262. W. S. Johnson to W. Pitkin, 18 Nov. 1768; and W. S. Johnson's Diary, for 8 Nov. 1768, Cavendish Debates. Though it were considered wiser, said Rigby, to alter the American tax, than
bring them before the King, Samuel Adams and about one third of the House, Samuel Adams to S. Sayre, 16 November, 1770. Hutchinson to Gov. Pownall, 11 Nov. 1770. following the advice of Joseph Reed of Philadelphia, gave their suffrages for Arthur Lee; but by the better influence of Bowdoin and of the Minister Cooper, Samuel Cooper to B. Franklin, 6 November, 1770; in Franklin, VII. 489. Hutchinson to Gov. Pownall, 11 Nov. 1770. Benjamin Franklin was elected with Arthur Lee as his substiArthur Lee as his substitute. Franklin held under the Crown the office of Deputy Postmaster General for America, and his son was a CHAP. XLV.} 1770. Oct royal Governor; but his mind had reasoned on politics with the same freedom from prejudice which marked his investigations into the laws of nature; and from questioning the right of Parliament to tax the Colonies externally, he had been led to the conviction, that the Colonies originally were constituted distinct States; that the legislative authority of Parliament
ends in Britain, of which I have no expectation, or the last Appeal. Ultima ratio. Samuel Adams' Papers. Letter to Arthur Lee, 27 Sept. 1777, from the draft. Compare in Hutchinson's Papers, III. 236, letter of 30 Sept, 1771. Hutchinson's Papernce, unanimity, and fortitude. America must herself, under God, finally work out her own salvation. Samuel Adams to Arthur Lee, Boston, 31 Oct. 1771. Life of Arthur Lee, II. 186; Compare Hutchinson to R. Jackson, October, 1771. While these oArthur Lee, II. 186; Compare Hutchinson to R. Jackson, October, 1771. While these opinions were boldly uttered, Hutch- Nov. inson, in the annual Proclamation which appointed the Festival of Thanksgiving and which used to be read from every pulpit, sought to ensnare the clergy by enumerating as a cause for gratitude, that civil andod the restoration of lost liberties. Cooper to Gov. Pownall, 14, S. Adams's Papers, II. 338; also II. 297. Life of Arthur Lee, II. 186. S. Adams to Henry Marchant, 7 January, 1772. Nowise disheartened, Hutchinson waited eagerly Dec. and con
ow; and Great Britain must comply with our demands, or sink under the united force of the French and Spaniards. This is the plan that wisdom and Providence point out to preserve our rights, and this alone. Oct. 28, 1772. An American in Boston Gazette, 2 Nov. 1772; 917, 2, 2. Towards executing that design Adams moved with calm and undivided purpose; conducting public measures with a caution that left no step to be retraced. The attendance at Faneuil Hall was not great S. Adams to A. Lee, 3 November, 1772. the town only raised a Committee to inquire of the Governor, if the Judges of the Province had become the stipendiaries of the Crown; after which it adjourned for two days. This country, said Samuel Adams, in the interval, must shake off its intolerable burdens at all events; every day strengthens our oppressors, and weakens us; if each town would declare its sense, our enemies could not divide us; Samuel Adams to Elbridge Gerry, 29 October, 1772. and he urged on Elbrid
if not all, will come into the like resolutions, and if the colonies are not soon relieved, some imagine a Congress will grow out of this measure. T. Gushing to A. Lee, 22 April, 1773. In Massachusetts they gladdened every heart. Virginia and South Carolina by their steady perseverance, inspired the hope, that the fire of Liberical enthusiast. What though the British nation carry their liberties to market, and sell them to the highest bidder? America, said he, repeating the words of Arthur Lee, America shall rise full plumed and glorious from the mother's ashes. Samuel Adams to A. Lee, 9 April, 1773. A copy of the proceedings of Virginia was seA. Lee, 9 April, 1773. A copy of the proceedings of Virginia was sent to every town and district in Massachusetts, that all the friends of American Independence and freedom, Original Papers, 351. might welcome the intelligence; and as one Meeting after another echoed back the advice for a Congress, they could hardly find words to express how their gloom had given way to light, and how their he
d more surely come if these high points about the supreme authority of Parliament were to fall asleep. T. Cushing to Arthur Lee, 20 Sept. 1773. Against this feeble advice, the Boston Committee of Correspondence aimed at the union of the Province, sed the Meeting, which was become far the most numerous ever held in Boston, embracing seven thousand men. S. Adams to A. Lee, 21 Dec. 1773. There was among them a patriot of fervid feeling; passionately devoted to the liberty of his country; stilyes and animated the countenances and the hearts of the patriots as they met one another, is unimaginable. S. Adams to A. Lee, 21 Dec. The Governor, meantime, was consulting his books and his lawyers to make out, that the Resolves of the meeting wS. Adams to James Warren, 28 Dec. 1773. The heart of the King was hardened against them like that of Pharaoh; Compare A. Lee to S. Adams, Dec. 1773. and none believed he would relent. Union, Chap. L.} 1773. Dec. therefore, was the cry; a union
he pamphlet of Mauduit and Wedderburn; Franklin's Report as Agent to his Constituents; Account left by Franklin; Edmund Burke as Agent of New-York to his Constituents, Feb. 1774; Same to Rockingham; Same to Charles Lee; Dartmouth to Hutchinson; Arthur Lee to Samuel Adams, 31 January, 1774; Letter of Priestly, 10 Nov. 1802; Observations of Edward Bancroft. could scarcely be heard; and that of Lee produced no impression. There was but one place in England where fit reparation could be made; and tLee produced no impression. There was but one place in England where fit reparation could be made; and there was but one man who had the eloquence and the courage and the weight of character to effect the atonement. For the present, Franklin must rely on the approval of the monitor within his own breast. I have never been so sensible of the power of a good conscience, said he to Priestley; for if I had not considered the thing for which I have been so much insulted, as one of the best actions of my life, and what I should certainly do again in the same circumstances, I could not have supported
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