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and allowed me to keep them, till by a continued examination and comparison they could be understood in all their aspects. Combined with manuscripts which I obtained in France, they give all the information that can be desired for illustrating Lord Shelburne's relations with America. My thanks are also due to the Duke of Grafton, for having communicated to me unreservedly the autobiography of the third Duke of that name, who besides having himself been a Prime Minister, held office with Rockingham, Chatham, Lord North, and Shelburne. The late Earl of Dartmouth showed me parts of the journal of his grandfather, written while he occupied the highest place at the Board of Trade. Of all persons in England, it was most desirable to have a just conception of the character of the King. Mr. Everett, when Minister at the Court of St. James, keeping up in his busiest hours the habit of doing kind offices, obtained for me from Lady Charlotte Lindsay, copies of several hundred notes, or ab
er bulwark for America than the shadowy partition which divides internal taxation from imposts regulating commerce; and Rockingham had leapt over this slight defence with scorn, declaring the power of Parliament to extend of right to all cases whatsoy. the Northern Department. There appeared a great and general backwardness Grafton's Autobiography. to embark with Rockingham. Lord North Lord North to Rockingham, 24 May, 1766. had hardly accepted a lucrative post, before he changed his mind nd excused himself. Lord Howe would not serve unless under Pitt. Lord Hardwicke's Memorial. Albemarle's Memoirs of Rockingham and his Contemporaries, i. 335. Lord Hardwicke also refused the place left vacant by Grafton; so did his brother, Charl 1766. and which Charles Townshend avowed his hope of obtaining from a future Administration. Once, to delay his fall, Rockingham suggested a coalition Duke of Richmond's Journal in Albemarle, i. 349. with the Duke of Bedford. In saloons, female
ered, he repaired to the King to advise their change. Rockingham to C. Yorke, 4 July, 1766, in Albemarle, i. 357. The secret note of the 15th July. even though Newcastle and Rockingham should retire. Camden to Thomas Walpole, 13 July, ane party of Bedford, refused to unite with the friends of Rockingham; and, having told the King, he would not go into the Minermanent fortune rest on him alone. Of the friends of Rockingham, Lord John Cavendish set the example of refusing to servestion, Pitt, on the twenty-seventh of July, went to pay Rockingham a visit of respect; and had passed the threshold, Pit135. Walpole, II. 356. Albemarle's Rockingham, II. 4. Rockingham to Pitt, and Rockingham to Conway. when the young chief Rockingham to Conway. when the young chief of the great whig families, refusing to receive him, turned the venerable man of the people from his door. But he was nevewerless, when left to themselves. The Administration of Rockingham brought Cumberland into the Cabinet; took their law from
e declaration of Parliament itself; and that its authority must be Chap. Xxviii} 1767. Feb. maintained. Garth to the Committee of South Carolina, 12 March 1767; Walpole, II. 418. By this time the friends of Grenville, of Bedford and of Rockingham, men the most imbittered against each other by former contests, and the most opposite in character and tendencies, were ready to combine to aim a deadly blow at the existing Ministry, whatever might be the consequence of its destruction. Com from it any advantage. The good sense of the country condemned it; the city dreaded the wound given to public credit; Grenville, who joyfully accepted the congratulations of the country gentlemen, deceived himself in expecting a junction with Rockingham, and had in the King an inflexible enemy. Compare Grenville's Diary in the Grenville Papers, IV. 212, with Sir Geo. Saville to Rockingham in Albemarle's Rockingham, II. 41. The ancient whig Connection, which had ruled England so long and sti
d only a common desire according to the traditions of the old Whig party, to make the King so far subordinate to his ministers, that it should be impossible for him not to give them his support. Respecting Chap. XXIX.} 1767. March measures, Rockingham gave assurances that his friends, without whom, he persuaded himself, nothing could be carried by the Bedfords, would not join in any thing severe against America. W. S. Johnson's Diary, 30 March, 1767. But he was all the while contributing rliament; but their execution will encounter still more considerable resistance in America. On the fifteenth of May, Townshend reported his resolutions to the House, when a strenuous effort was made to have them re-committed; the friends of Rockingham, pretending to wish a more lenient mea- Chap. XXIX.} 1767. May. sure, yet joining with Grenville who spoke for one more severe, effective and general. But Townshend, by surpassing eloquence, brought the House back to his first Resolutions, w
afton to Northington, 18 July, 1767. But Rockingham, who never opened his eyes to the light thatton Grafton to Rockingham, 15 July, 1767; Rockingham to Grafton, 16 July, 1767. his readiness to Same, 17 July, 1767, 9 o'clock. and he gave Rockingham leave to revive, if he could, the exclusive exceedingly jealous of its liberty. While Rockingham, self-deluded as to the purposes of his asso the Oligarchy met at Newcastle House. When Rockingham had explained the purpose of the meeting, Bef Great Britain over its Colonies. At this, Rockingham flew into a violent passion, and Bedford'ct to his disadvantage before the public. Rockingham to Dowdeswell in Cavendish Debates, i. 584. Rockingham to Hardwicke, in Albemarle, II. 50. This letter has the wrong date, of July 2 for July iculty about America could not be got over. Rockingham again avowed his distrust of Grenville Coe best humor. He bowed very graciously, and Rockingham bowed, and so they parted. What did the Kin[3 more...]
Jan. this Remonstrance, next addressed Shelburne, The House of Representatives to Shelburne, 15 January, 1768, Bradford's State Papers, 137. Compare the contrary opinions of Otis, in Gordon's Hist. of the Amer. Rev. i. 228, 229. Chatham, Rockingham, House to Rockingham, 22 Jan. 1768, in Bradford, 142. Conway, Camden, the Treasury Board, at which sat Grafton, Lord North, and Jenkinson, letters which contained the same sentiments, and especially enforced the impracticability of an AmericRockingham, 22 Jan. 1768, in Bradford, 142. Conway, Camden, the Treasury Board, at which sat Grafton, Lord North, and Jenkinson, letters which contained the same sentiments, and especially enforced the impracticability of an American representation in the British Parliament. The True Sentiments of America: Contained in a Collection of Letters, &c. &c. Published at the instance of Thomas Hollis. But no memorial was sent to the Lords; no petition to the House of Commons. The colonial Legislature joined issue with the British Parliament, and adopting the draft of Samuel Adams, Of this document, I possess the draft as made by Samuel Adams with his own hand. Handwriting of itself does not prove authorship, but this pap
Chapter 35: The Regulators of North Carolina.—Hillsborough's Ad-Ministration of the Colonies continued. July—September, 1768. The people of Boston had gone out of favor with Chap XXXV.} 1768. July. almost every body in England. W. S. Johnson to Thaddeus Burr, London, 28 July, 1768. Even Rockingham had lost all patience, saying the Americans were determined to leave their friends on his side the water, without the power of advancing in their behalf a shadow of excuse. N. Rogers to Hutchinson, 2 July, 1768. This was the state of public feeling, when, on the nineteenth of July, Hallowell arrived in London with letters giving an exaggerated account of what had happened in Boston on the tenth of June. The news was received with general dismay; London, Liverpool and Bristol grew anxious; stocks fell greatly, and continued falling. Rumors came also of a suspension of commerce, and there was a debt due from America to the merchants and manu facturers of England of four mi
not comply, said the King, it must Chap. XLII.} 1770. Jan. make an eternal breach between us. Yorke gave way, was reproached by Hardwicke his brother, and by Rockingham; begged his brother's forgiveness, kissed him and parted friends; and then with a fatal sensibility to fame Burke, i. 303. went home to die by his own hand. His appalling fate scattered dismay among the Ministry, and encouraged the opposition to put forth its utmost energies. On the twenty-second of January, Rockingham, overcoming his nervous weakness, summoned resolution to make a long speech in the House of Lords. He turned his eyes, however, only towards the past, condemning tKing writes, My mind is more and more strengthened in the rightness of the measure. That implies previous consideration of the measure. Conway hinted at trying Rockingham and his friends. I know their disposition, said the King, and I will not hear of them. As for Chatham, I will abdicate the crown sooner than consent to his re
e principles of the Revolution. No combination could rise against this organized conservatism of England, but one which should revive Revolution principles, and insist on a nearer harmony between them and the forms of the Constitution. As yet Rockingham and his adherents avowed the same political creed with the clan of Bedford, and were less friendly to reform than Grenville. When Burke and Wedderburne were allies, the opposition wore the aspect of a selfish struggle of the discontented for p aristocracy as the cure of the evil. But English liberty was like the lofty forest tree which begins to decay at its top; it needed a renewal of the soil round its root. Chat- May. ham saw the futility of the plan; and unable to obtain from Rockingham the acceptance of his far reaching views, he stepped forward himself as the champion of the people. I pledge myself to their cause, said he in the House of Lords on the first of May, for I know it is the cause of truth and justice. I trust th
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