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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 60 8 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 8 55 1 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 10 34 0 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 8. You can also browse the collection for Robert Howe or search for Robert Howe in all documents.

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The American revolution. Epoch Third. America Declares itself independent. 1774-1776. America Declares itself independent. Chapter 41: The continental congress in midsummer, 1775. June 17—July, 1775. idle refugees in Boston, and even candid British Chap. XLI.} 1775. June 17. officers, condemned Howe's attack on the New England lines as a needless exposure of his troops to carnage. By landing at the Charlestown isthmus, they said, he should have cooped the rebels within the peninsula; or by aid of a musket proof gunboat he should have dislodged the party near the Mystic; and, even at the last, by concentrating his force at the rail fence, he might have taken Prescott in the rear. During the evening and night after the battle, the air trembled with the groans of the wounded, as they were borne over the Charles and through the streets of Boston to hospitals, where they were to waste away from the summer heat and the scarcity of proper food. The fifth regiment suffer
II.} 1775. July. God is in the midst of us. Meantime Lee had not been many days in the camp before the British generals in Boston, who knew him well, showed a disposition to tamper with him for their own purposes. From Philadelphia he had, in June, addressed to Burgoyne, his old comrade in Portugal, a public letter condemning American taxation by parliament, and tracing the malady of the state to the corrupt influence of the crown. In an able reply, Burgoyne insisted, for himself and for Howe, that their political principles were unchanged, and invited Lee to an interview within the British lines, for the purpose of inducing such explanations as might tend in their consequences to peace, for, said he, as if with the highest authority, I know Great Britain is ready to open her arms upon the first overture of accommodation. Clutching at the office of a negotiator, Lee avoided asking advice of a council of war, and of himself requested the Massachusetts congress to depute one of the
island of planters forbade active assistance, but whose good wishes ministered consolation. America and Ireland also came nearer to each other. In July the merchants of Dublin applauded the earl of Effingham for refusing to draw his sword against the lives and liberties of his fellow-subjects in America; in Chap. XLIII.} 1775 July. the same month congress sent to Ireland a pledgeof their unalterable sympathy, and their joy that their own trials had extorted some mitigation of its wrongs. Howe was of an Irish family; to the Irish, therefore, they expressed their amazement at finding his name in the catalogue of their enemies; and they fletched their complaint by adding: America loved his brother. While these addresses were in progress, the British government was exerting every nerve to provide the means of reducing America; and as the aid of Indian tribes was believed to be absolutely necessary, Guy Johnson, acting independently of Carleton, was lavishing promises without bounds
sition, and its comparative unanimity. In the low country, for the distance of a hundred miles from the sea, all classes were penetrated with the enthusiasm for liberty. Men whom the royalists revered as of the first order of people in the country, of unblemished integrity and earnest character, loyal by nature, gave thoughtful consideration to the political questions in issue, and decided irrevocably against the right of the British parliament to tax the colonies. In Brunswick county, Robert Howe, formerly captain of Fort Johnston, employed himself in training the people to arms; though Martin, the royal governor, held his military talents in light esteem. At Newbern, the capital, whose name kept in memory that its founders were emigrants from the highlands of Switzerland, volunteers openly formed themselves into independent companies. Afraid of being seized, Martin, suddenly shipping his family to New York, retreated to Fort Johnston on Cape Fear river. He had repeatedly offer
and he was recalled, though without official censure. For the time, the command in America was divided; and assigned in Canada to Carleton, in the old colonies to Howe. Ten thousand pounds and an additional supply of three thousand arms were forwarded to Quebec, and notwithstanding the caution of Barrington, word was sent to Ca renovating the army. While the committee were on the way, Gage, Oct. on the tenth of October, embarked for England, bearing with him the large requirements of Howe, his successor, which he warmly seconded. The king, the ministers, public opinion in England had made very free with his reputation; but, on his arrival, he was allowed to wear a bolder front than he had shown in Massachusetts, and was dismissed into retirement with the rank and emoluments of his profession. To Howe, the new commander-in-chief, the ministers had sent instructions, which permitted and advised the transfer of the war to New York; but, from the advanced state of the season,
pped and prepared on the opening of the Baltic in spring, to embark by way of England for Canada, where they were to be under the supreme command of the British general. The journey from London to Moscow required about twenty three days; yet they were all so overweeningly confident, that they hoped to get the definitive promise by the twenty third of October, in season to announce it at the opening of parliament; and early in September Lord Dartmouth and his secretary hurried off messages to Howe and to Carleton, that the empress had given the most ample assurances of letting them have any number of infantry that might be wanted. On the eighth, Suffolk despatched a second courier to Gunning, with a project of a treaty for taking a body of Russian troops into the pay and service of Great Britain. The treaty was to continue for two years, within which the king and his ministers were confident of crushing the insurrection. The levy money for the troops might be seven pounds sterling
er lurked in every home. The measure was a very deliberate act which had been reported in advance to the ministry, and had appeared an encouraging one to the king; it formed a part of a system which Dunmore had concerted with General Gage and General Howe. He also sent for the small detachment of regulars stationed in Illinois and the northwest; he commissioned Mackee, a deputy superintendent, to raise a regiment of Indians among the savages of Ohio and the west- Chap. LV.} 1775. Nov. ern bon board ship, in midwinter, with scarcely the necessaries of life. Crowds of poor people and the runaway negroes were huddled together in the ships of war and other vessels, destitute of every comfort and even of pure air. On the eleventh, Robert Howe, of North Carolina arrived at the Great Bridge, and on the fourteenth he, as the higher officer, took possession of Norfolk. On the twenty first the Liverpool ship of war and the brig Maria were piloted into the harbor. They brought three t
houses built chiefly of pine, could extend itself with irresistible fury. Who can affirm or who can deny, that mischievous persons on Chap. LVI.} 1776. Jan. shore may not have found amusement in feeding the flames? But the American commanders, Howe and Woodford, certainly made every effort to arrest them; and troops without tents would hardly in midwinter have burned down the houses that were their only shelter. When Washington learned the fate of the rich emporium of his own country, forthan his own tranquillity, he would have put every thing on the cast of a die, and forced a battle at every disadvantage. The world gave him Chap. LVI.} 1776. Jan. credit for an army of twenty thousand well armed men; and yet at the moment when Howe was receiving reenforcements, he had been left with less than half that number, including the sick, those on furlough, those on command, and those who were neither properly armed nor clothed. For more than two months past, said he, I have scarcel
es on Long Island. The arbitrary orders were resented by all the New York delegates as a high encroachment upon the rights of the representatives of a free people, and were unequivocally condemned and reversed by congress. Instead of hastening to his new command, Lee loitered at Philadelphia, till, on the fifteenth,Richard Henry Lee and Franklin were directed to request him to repair forthwith to his southern department. The expedition to the Carolinas never met the ap- Jan. proval of Howe, who condemned the activity of the southern governors, and would have had them avoid all disputes, till New York should be recovered. When Lord Dunmore learned from Clinton that Cape Fear River was the place appointed for the meeting Chap. LVIII.} 1776. Jan. of the seven regiments from Ireland, he broke out into angry complaints, that no heed had been paid to his representations, his sufferings, and his efforts; that Virginia, the first on the continent for riches, power, and extent, was n
n England the ministry trusted implicitly the assurances of Howe, that he was not under the least apprehensions of any attac both sides ceased to play, and a fearful quiet prevailed. Howe, as he saw the new intrenchments loom in imposing strength,ew England farmers or retreat. Left very much to himself, Howe knew not what to pro- Chap. LIX.} 1776. Mar. pose; neitherer Hill; and Percy showed no heart for an enterprise, which Howe himself confessed to be hazardous. When they were seen to y would not well like. Their hostile appearances subsided; Howe called a second council of war, and its members were oblige Who could now put trust in their promises? On the eighth, Howe, through the selectmen of Boston, wished to come to an undethe work; and yet as Washington did not abandon his design, Howe was compelled to hasten his embarkation. In November he haey were all put on board one hundred and twenty transports; Howe himself, among the last to leave the town, took passage wit
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